page 353
December 15th
ZION'S
WATCH TOWER
and
Herald of Christ's Presence

ROCK OF AGES
Other foundation can
no man lay
A RANSOM FOR ALL

"Watchman, What of the Night?"
"The Morning Cometh, and a Night also!" Isaiah 21:11

SEMI-MONTHLY
VOL. XXV.DECEMBER 1, 1904.No. 23.


CONTENTS

Christendom's Anxious Situation355
Outlook of Congregationalists356
Rationalistic Seminaries356
New Missionaries Infidels357
No "Trumpet" in Christendom357
An Illustration in Hypocrisy358
A Giant Specter358
Price List of Bibles, Helps, Etc.359-362
"Thou Shalt Worship the Lord thy God"363
The Prince of Peace364

I will stand upon my watch, and set my foot upon the Tower, and will watch to see what He shall say unto me, and what answer I shall make to them that oppose me. Hab. 2:1

Upon the earth distress of nations with perplexity: the sea and the waves (the restless, discontented) roaring: men's hearts failing them for fear and for looking forward to the things coming upon the earth (society): for the powers of the heavens (ecclestiasticism) shall be shaken. . . .When ye see these things come to pass, then know that the Kingdom of God is nigh at hand. Look up, lift up your heads, rejoice, for your redemption draweth nigh. -- Luke 21:25-28, 32.

page 354

THIS JOURNAL AND ITS MISSION.

THIS journal is set for the defence of the only true foundation of the Christian's hope now being so generally repudiated,--Redemption through the precious blood of "the man Christ Jesus who gave himself a ransom [a corresponding price, a substitute] for all." (1 Pet. 1:19; 1 Tim. 2:6.) Building up on this sure foundation the gold, silver and precious stones (1 Cor. 3:11-15; 2 Pet. 1:5-11) of the Word of God, its further mission is to--"Make all see what is the fellowship of the mystery which...has been hid in God,...to the intent that now might be made known by the Church the manifold wisdom of God"--"which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed."--Eph. 3:5-9,10.

It stands free from all parties, sects and creeds of men, while it seeks more and more to bring its every utterance into fullest subjection to the will of God in Christ, as expressed in the Holy Scriptures. It is thus free to declare boldly whatsoever the Lord hath spoken;--according to the divine wisdom granted unto us, to understand. Its attitude is not dogmatical, but confident; for we know whereof we affirm, treading with implicit faith upon the sure promises of God. It is held as a trust, to be used only in his service; hence our decisions relative to what may and what may not appear in its columns must be according to our judgment of his good pleasure, the teaching of his Word, for the upbuilding of his people in grace and knowledge. And we not only invite but urge our readers to prove all its utterances by the infallible Word to which reference is constantly made, to facilitate such testing.

TO US THE SCRIPTURES CLEARLY TEACH

That the Church is "the Temple of the Living God"--peculiarly "His
workmanship;" that its construction has been in progress throughout the Gospel age--ever since Christ became the world's Redeemer and the chief corner stone of this Temple, through which, when finished, God's blessings shall come "to all people," and they find access to him.--1 Cor. 3:16,17; Eph. 2:20-22; Gen. 28:14; Gal. 3:29.
That meantime the chiseling, shaping and polishing, of consecrated believers
in Christ's atonement for sin, progresses; and when the last of these "living stones," "elect and precious," shall have been made ready, the great Master Workman will bring all together in the First Resurrection; and the Temple shall be filled with his glory, and be the meeting place between God and men throughout the Millennium.--Rev. 15:5-8.
That the Basis of Hope, for the Church and the World, lies in the fact that
"Jesus Christ, by the grace of God, tasted death for every man," "a ransom for all," and will be "the true light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world," "in due time."--Heb. 2:9; John 1:9; 1 Tim. 2:5,6.
That the Hope of the Church is that she may be like her Lord, "see him
as he is," be "partaker of the divine nature," and share his glory as his joint-heir.--1 John 3:2; John 17:24; Rom. 8:17; 2 Pet. 1:4.
That the present mission of the Church is the perfecting of the saints for
the future work of service; to develop in herself every grace; to be God's witness to the world; and to prepare to be the kings and priests of the next age.--Eph. 4:12; Matt. 24:14; Rev. 1:6; 20:6.
That the hope for the World lies in the blessings of knowledge and opportunity
to be brought to by Christ's Millennial Kingdom--the restitution of all that was lost in Adam, to all the willing and obedient, at the hands of their Redeemer and his glorified Church.--Acts 3:19-21; Isa. 35.
 
CHARLES T. RUSSELL, Editor.




LETTERS FOR THE EDITOR SHOULD BE SENT TO ALLEGHENY, PA., U.S.A.
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ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MAIL MATTER AT ALLEGHENY, PA., POST OFFICE.

THIS JOURNAL IS PUBLISHED IN THE
FRENCH, GERMAN, SWEDISH, DANISH AND ITALIAN LANGUAGES.
SAMPLE COPIES FREE.



[R3465 : page 354]

CLUBBING ARRANGEMENT FOR 1905.


As usual, all WATCH TOWER subscriptions for the United States for 1905 will include subscriptions to the Old Theology Quarterly. And this year we have effected a special arrangement by which all paid WATCH TOWER subscriptions for 1905 will include without extra charge, a subscription to the Solon Journal (monthly) for four months. It is a secular journal of good tone; price with privileges $2 a year. Its claims for public recognition we heartily endorse, having profited thereby ourselves. Its advantages apply only within the United States, hence this offer is thus limited. All U.S. subscribers may look for their first number in January.

BROTHER RUSSELL'S SUNDAY DISCOURSES


The following journals are now publishing Brother Russell's sermons regularly, viz.,--

The Schenectady Union, - Schenectady, N.Y.
The State, - - - - - - - Columbia, S.C.
The Pittsburg Gazette, - Pittsburg, Pa.

The arrangement with the latter was for one year, and expires with the present month. Should it not be renewed all of its unexpired subscriptions sent to us for it will be placed in other journals publishing the discourses.



[R3465 : page 355]

CHRISTENDOM'S ANXIOUS SITUATION.

BY REV. E. F. BURR, D.D.
WE SEE, in many pleasant respects, just what the Fathers saw. The old Christian flag is still waving; the old Christian creeds still maintain their places; the old Christian sanctuaries are still open every Sabbath; ministers preach and pray in them still; there are still prayer meetings, and sacraments, and Sunday Schools, and Bible Schools, and Salvation Armies, and Northfields, and Bible Leagues, and Christian Endeavorers. It is not a surface Sahara by any means.

And yet the condition of things among us is very serious--so serious that it would be the height of unwisdom to blink it. Beneath the fair crust of Christian forms and professions boils and tosses an amazing amount of un-Christian and anti-Christian thinking. We do not know exactly how much; but that it is formidably great we do know. Every now and then eruptions occur which startle us as with a blow. Latterly, these outbreaks have sometimes come in groups and with almost volcanic violence; and the impact on us has been as when the smith with both hands smites the anvil. We are shocked--shocked at the mass of destructive material belched out from most unexpected quarters; from pulpits noted for orthodoxy; from seminaries supposed to be bound to the old Gospel by more than seven green withes, which not even a Samson could break; from Associations, Presbyteries, Conferences where grey heads listen patiently to attacks on the Bible, which a few years ago would have raised a storm of astonishment and protest.

Lo, the new departures of a few years ago have expanded into the "New Christianity" of the Higher Criticism, the destructive criticism of the Bible. Under the aegis of the Christian name this unwelcome immigrant has come to great estate among us. Its shadow covers and chills great denominations, great presses and great educational institutions. To multitudes the Old Testament is gone and the New Testament is either gone or going. Not a few deny or question fundamental Christian doctrines--the Messiahship of Jesus, his miraculous birth and incarnation, his miracles, his atonement, his resurrection and ascension, and even his reliability as a religious teacher. Many whose standing in the ministry is still unchallenged question all these doctrines; and very many more are plainly feeling their way to the same depths at various stages of descent. These men, even the most radical of them, are preaching their views without hindrance in our churches and presses. They occupy chairs in our colleges and seminaries. The defection is so great that no ecclesiastical discipline is attempted. Courts, civil and ecclesiastical, have been appealed to in vain to prevent the perversion of trust funds defended by oaths and creeds as strong as human ingenuity could make them. In spite of ironclad creeds and quinquennial paths rationalism has appropriated many strategic positions in the high places of the field. The leading colleges of New England invite to their chairs and pulpits the most radical Unitarians, Universalists and Rationalists; and, as if the home supply was not large enough, are at the trouble of importing them. Whole Associations, Presbyteries, Conferences are dominated by views of the Bible which defy all the Protestant confessions and which would, a few years ago, have been met by storms of protest and excommunication.

In view of this general situation the friends of the old Bible naturally look with anxious eyes to see where stand their Missionary Societies. What do they find? I will speak only for Congregationalists. Other Protestant denominations must speak for themselves. [R3465 : page 356] Just now they may find themselves much better off than their neighbors; but they will, at least, find that they are being menaced by like conditions. We should at least serve as a warning.

OUTLOOK OF CONGREGATIONALISTS.

What do Congregationalists find? They find that the higher criticism now sits at the council board and swarms in the constituency of each of their three missionary societies. Whoever sees that much sees reason for grave apprehension. All these societies are on the brink--liable to be crowded over it at any moment by the pressure from behind....

Is there not cause for uneasiness? Have not evangelical churches reason to fear that as little discrimination is made in the laborers sent into the home mission fields as exists among the men sending them? Is it not certain that men who think that higher critics of an extreme type are suitable persons for the championships and directorships and presidencies of missionary societies will think them suitable for mission work in the field? Our misgivings are very great. Our fears are stronger in the battle than our hopes. We are willing and even anxious to contribute to send the old Gospel into all fields, believing it to be the power of God unto salvation; but we are not willing to do as much for another Gospel. It is forbidden us. So we feel obliged to query with our two home missionary societies: "What are you doing with our contributions? What sort of men are you sending into the mission fields in our names? Let us know. It looks more and more as if you must be sending forth men whom it is against our consciences to send and support. Is it so?"

Again our three missionary societies are so linked to a fourth that whatever patronage is given to one is measurably given to all. They present themselves for patronage in a lump, make a common appeal, have a common publication, divide among themselves certain common expenses and receipts, and are thinking of a common anniversary. We cannot bless one without blessing all; cannot help the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions without helping the Congregational Sunday School and Publishing Society.

And yet this latter society, acting in the name of all our churches, and at the expense of all of them, is engaged in publishing books and Sunday School helps and a weekly newspaper notoriously and grossly in the interest of the Higher Criticism--the newspaper presumably bought and supported, in part at least, by denominational funds and claiming denominational authority. Moreover, this society has just come into avowed alliance with a well known organ of the Higher Criticism; namely, "The American Institute of Sacred Literature," for the purpose of capturing in its interests our Sunday School teachers.

Such is the society which all our churches are now being urged to support liberally--urged by the common voice of all our denominational societies, as expressed in innumerable circulars, in a plan for having a special agency for each society in each church, and in the actual appointment of a field secretary to give his whole time to the work of swelling the contributions of all the churches to all the societies--not excepting the most objectionable. Is this tolerable? Do not the other missionary societies see that their working in harness with such a society, and even helping to gild and draw its special chariot, is fitted to disturb confidence in themselves? Would not all evangelical churches feel wronged at having their contributions so used if they were aware of it? [R3466 : page 356]

But they are not aware. For some reason the shepherds have not spoken, or have spoken the wrong thing. Even watchmen who have clearly seen the enemy entering the gates in force, and have deplored the fact, have not seen their way clear to put trumpet to their lips. Wonderful silence! And so the churches do not know that the Philistines are upon them. Are not misgivings (or more) in order under such circumstances? Unless something is done, in due time our whole city will be taken, our whole lump will be leavened with unbelief, at the expense, largely, of believers. Are believers ready for this?

"RATIONALISTIC SEMINARIES."

Another fact gives us even profounder concern-- gives vast weight and exasperation to our other sources of anxiety. If all our educational institutions were in the hands of believing and faithful men, backsliding missionary societies would not mean so much. They must soon retrace their steps or die. But, as matters now stand, they threaten to go from bad to worse by endless reinforcement from behind. All the leading colleges in the East, and all our technical Congregational seminaries both East and West, are in active sympathy with the principles and methods of the Higher Criticism--as is shown either by the position of those who control them, or by publications of their professors, or by the reports of their students, or by the radical critics invited to their lectureships and decorated with their honors.

This is the condition of things which actually exists among Congregationalists, and threatens all our Protestant denominations. It is a very serious condition --so serious that to realize it almost takes one's breath away; only leaving breath enough to exclaim, "When the foundations are destroyed what can the righteous do!"

Of course rationalistic seminaries must be expected to produce, mostly, rationalists. Here and [R3456 : page 357] there, one heavily reinforced by a sound conversion and a sound home training, will resist the influences of the seminary; but such cases will be few. Practically, the entire output of our seminaries at present is higher critics. What becomes of them? Somehow the Congregational public absorbs them all. Some, by grace of easy-going councils, become pastors of self-supporting churches. The rest are being sent forth by our missionary societies. How can it be otherwise? From what other sources than their seminaries can these societies draw their recruits? They must take higher critics or none. As matters now stand they must do it or go out of business. But they have not gone out of business. They are still busy at sending out appeals and missionaries--sending them out at the expense of all the Congregational churches, nearly or quite all of whom, in the older States, have evangelical creeds and histories. Are we content with this? Ought we to be?

NEW MISSIONARIES INFIDELS.

Just now, on all the mission fields, are many men to whom no exception can be taken--men of an earlier and better training. But they are becoming fewer every year, and their places are being filled with their opposites. If the present condition of our seminaries continues, and our missionary societies continue to do as they are now doing, and have been doing for some time, what but the Higher Criticism, with its eviscerated Bible, will occupy the field at home and abroad? Can evangelical churches be reasonably asked to assist such a result by their contributions? It is asking them to commit suicide.

Are we invited to bear in mind that all the forms of Higher Criticism which the seminaries are engaged in teaching, and the missionary societies are engaged in distributing, are not equally gross? We do bear it in mind. We remember that some higher critics are standing on the crumbling edge of the precipice; that others are clinging to its ragged sides at various stages of descent, and that very many are lying on the jagged rocks at the bottom, all broken to pieces. No --all are not as yet broken to pieces; but all are in imminent danger of being so. For, they all decline to treat the Old Testament as Christ treated it, and, in the treatment of both Testaments, all approve and act on those general principles and methods of Biblical criticism whose logical and historical terminus is a Bible without supernaturalism and without authority.

"THOROUGH-GOING INFIDELS."

And, somehow, the most broken of these critics manage to do their work under shelter of the old creeds, and while wearing the purple robes of Christian professors and ministers. We do not see how they can put this and that together. To us the man seems like a thorough-going infidel. He talks like an infidel in private; he writes like an infidel; he is doing the work of an infidel; and infidels rejoice over the work he is doing and call him Brother. But he denies the kinship. He says that he is a Christian and doing Christian work. Does he not subscribe to a Christian creed, hold a high Christian office, draw a Christian salary, sometimes praise the Christian Bible to the skies? Though he rejects all the fundamental Christian doctrines and tears the Bible to tatters, he says to all the azimuths that he is the best of Christians. It looks to us extremely like saying that black is white; that falsehood is truth, that sin is holiness, that infidelity is Christianity. We tremble for the dictionary as well as for the Bible. Have words no meaning that can be depended on? Are we all at sea in the use of the English language? The Son of Man was betrayed with a kiss--perhaps our friend, the enemy, will take it hard that we remind him of that ancient tragedy. In war, the soldier who, being in command of a fortress for his king, busies himself in making breaches in its walls and hewing down its gates in the presence of the enemy is not called a loyal subject though he continues to fly the king's flag and wear his uniform and eat his bread.

NO "TRUMPET" IN CHRISTENDOM.

In view of the foregoing facts, are not the friends of the old Bible justified in grave misgivings, even anxieties, as to the future of their missions and churches? But these anxieties may well be enhanced when they consider that the churches in general do not as yet fully realize their danger. Individual laymen, here and there, have come to know and feel the peril; but the churches, as such, are not awake. No trumpet has sounded--at least none to which they are tuned. They are not given to reading controversial theology, bristling with technicals and subtleties and dead languages. In a dim sort of way they may know that the Bible is under fire; and they experience that lowering of spiritual tone and activity that naturally comes from living in an atmosphere largely charged with impurities of doubt and cavil, but they do not realize the extent to which ministers and institutions have fallen away from the Fathers and the Mayflower. They are still relying on certificates of church membership, of seminary training, of licensures and examinations and approvals by councils and associations, to protect their pupils from fundamental errorists. Once these were reliable safeguards. They are such no longer. But the laymen are not awake to the fact; do not understand that now, at least in New England, there is little or nothing to hinder errorists of the most radical sort from appearing in their pulpits. The doors are wide open--wide open. [R3466 : page 358]

AN ILLUSTRATION IN HYPOCRISY.

A man enters. Who is he? Possibly, a higher critic of the grossest kind. He has no Old Testament at all. As to the New Testament, he has little of that left--no incarnation; no miracles; no resurrection; no ascension; no atonement; no infallible teacher --nothing but a poor sort of Buddha loaded down with blasphemous pretensions and speaking a bit of the Sermon on the Mount. If his parishioners could hear him talk in private, or in ministerial circles more or less sympathetic, they would be astonished and dismayed. They would say, "This man is an infidel --as much so as Tom Paine." And they would say the truth. An infidel is what he really is. But it is not what he appears to his hearers. He appears at first to them as a devout Christian. He comes to them in the name of Christ and his Christianity. He marches under a Christian banner and wears a Christian uniform. He wears clerical clothes and manners, stands in what has long been an orthodox pulpit, has orthodox looks and tones and words in preaching and praying, has actually joined their local church with its Puritan creed. Must he not be all right? Being victims of appearances, his hearers are likely to say Yes; are likely to receive the man for what he appears to be--a teacher come from God, an angel of light. They will have open ears for what the angel will have to say.

What will he say? The people expect serpents to hiss, dogs to bark, lions to roar and infidels to advertise themselves with a trumpet. This infidel will do nothing of the sort. Nothing startling nor disturbing will come from him at first. He has been taught better. His teachers have shown him by example, if not by precept, a more excellent way. It is a prudent way, a cautious way, a way of preparation and education by littles and littles. He will introduce a new newspaper. He will recommend a new book. In due time he will confess that he does not think so highly as some do of creeds and dogmas and heresy trials. So he proceeds by easy stages from hesitations to insinuations, from insinuations to plain doubts, from doubts to denials--at last the whole camel follows the nose. He has prepared his way just as his teachers did theirs. He has walked in velvet slippers for a while; for a while has been careful not to tread on ancient and rheumatic toes. To the last he continues to pose as a true sheep whose fleece is of the finest and heaviest; as a warm friend of that Bible whose integrity and authority he is engaged in shredding away. Is it to be wondered at that he meets with a measure of success; perhaps warps over a majority of his church into rationalism--all but the impossible elect? [R3467 : page 358]

Behold a church stripped of all safeguards and then exposed to the sharp practice of a supposed friend! No wonder if it falls an easy prey. Caesar, without his shield and cuirass and mail, easily falls when friend Brutus strikes.

The fact is that the misgivings and anxieties warranted by the present condition of our colleges and seminaries and denominational societies, great as these anxieties are, should be much enhanced when we consider that our churches generally are not aware of the extent of the ministerial apostasy, have lost the ancient safeguards against it, and are now being attacked from within by enemies who swear by all the evangelists that they are best friends.

"A GIANT SPECTER."

Such is the state of things in the constituency of our Congregational Missionary Societies. It is at least a condition that threatens all the Protestant denominations. One part of the people have lost all faith in the Bible as a supernatural book; and they are largely the leaders of the people. Another part is uncertain what to believe. And still another part that believe as firmly as ever have, at the very least, great misgivings as to what their societies are actually doing; whether they are not sending forth another gospel, and sending it at the expense of the evangelical churches. All parts are breathing an unwholesome atmosphere, misty with doubts and cavil and venturesome speculations. Is not this sufficient cause for almost any amount of falling off in missionary contributions and ministerial supply?

And yet the managers of our missionary societies ignore the anxious situation altogether. They express surprise that their operations are so poorly supported. What can be the matter with the churches! Why are they giving rills instead of rivers! Not an audible word comes from officialdom to show that they understand the situation. Neither in their official organs, nor in the formal reports and appeals at anniversaries, is there anything to show but that they have before them the public of fifty years ago. They do not even recognize the presence anywhere in their fields of such a thing as the Higher Criticism. Is it possible that their eyes are holden so that they do not see a giant SPECTER stalking through the Protestant world and smiting the very foundations of Christian Missions? It is not possible. They are aware of "the pestilence that walketh in darkness and the destruction that wasteth at noon day;" but, for some reason, they think it best, on the whole, not to manifest their knowledge. They may be right. But if all friends of the Bible should do the same--should neglect to give the plague its true name, to warn the public against it, and to take measures for quarantining and suppressing it--common sense would be outraged, the Truth and Christ betrayed, and the whole land become a charnel house. Which may God and his people forbid!



page 359

BIBLES, TESTAMENTS, STUDENTS' HELPS, ETC.

SUPPLIED AT WHOLESALE COST PRICES.


IN presenting our list of Bibles this year we have dropped a number which we have previously carried and have selected others which we think more desirable. We give below a list which, although not very large, we think will cover a range sufficiently large to suit the wants of nearly all. However, should any of the friends desire a more complete list to select from we shall be pleased to mail publishers' catalogues upon postal card application.


Divinity Circuit Teachers' Bibles.
No.           (Add Postage on these 25c each.)                Pub.   Our
8701   Long Primer, French Morocco, div. cir., red           Price  Price
         under gold, full teachers' helps 8-3/8 x 5-1/2...... 1.95   1.25
8709   Same as 8701, leather lined........................... 2.75   1.80
              (Add Postage on these, 20c each.)
8301   Minion, French Morocco, div. cir., red under
         gold, full teachers' helps, 7-3/4 x 5-3/4........... 1.45    .95
04403  Minion, French Seal, div. cir., selected
         helps, 7-1/4 x 5.................................... 1.20    .84

Combination Teachers' Bibles.

These Bibles show the variations of the Revised Version at the foot of each page. Otherwise it is an ordinary "Teachers' Bible," with maps, concordance, etc., illustrated.

              (Add Postage on these 25c each.)
610    Bourgeois, French Seal, div. cir., red under
         gold, 8 x 6 x 1-3/4................................. 5.00   1.25
612    Same as 610, linen lined.............................. 5.50   1.38
614    Same as 610, leather lined............................ 6.00   1.55

Linear Teachers' Bibles.

Hitherto these Bibles have been sold by Subscription Agents only. Its special feature, differentiating it from other Teachers' Bibles, is that it shows the readings of the Common and Revised Versions side by side in the same line. (This is the Bible of which we procured a special edition with wide margins and DAWN and TOWER references thereon; and of which edition we have no more.)

              (Add Postage on these 25c each.)
350    Small Pica, French Seal, red under gold,
         full teachers' helps, 8-3/4 x 6 x 1-1/2............. 6.00   2.10
355    Small Pica, French Morocco, div. circ. red
         under gold, leather lined, full teachers'
         helps, 8-3/4 x 6 x 1-1/2............................ 8.00   3.15
360    Small Pica, Levant Morocco, div. circ., red
         under gold, kid lined, full teachers' helps,
         8-3/4 x 6 x 1-1/2...................................10.00   4.25

Pocket Bibles.
              (Add Postage on these 15c each.)
01327  Minion, French Morocco, div. circ., red under
         gold, text and maps, 5-3/4 x 3-3/4.................. 1.00    .70
01329  Minion Arabian Morocco, div. circ., leather
         lined to edge, red under gold, text and
         maps, 5-3/4 x 3-3/4................................. 1.45   1.00
01150  Ruby, French Morocco, limp, round cor.,
         red under gold, text only, 5-5/8 x 3-7/8............  .65    .46
01153  Same as above, div. circ..............................  .75    .53
194    Minion, French Seal, div. circ., red under
         gold text only, 5-3/4 x 3-5/8 x 1................... 1.10    .75
03008  Pearl, French Seal, div. circ., linen lined,
         5-3/4 x 3-3/4, references........................... 1.00    .60

India Paper Pocket Bibles.
              (Add Postage on these, 8c each.)
03114x Ruby, Persian Levant, div. cir., leather lined,
         silk sewed, red under gold, 5-5/8 x 4-3/4, refs..... 3.25   2.15
01157x Ruby, French Morocco, div. cir., leather
         lined, 5-5/8 x 3-7/8 x 1/2.......................... 2.00   1.35
01103x Diamond, French Morocco, div. cir., red under
         gold, 4-1/2 x 2-1/2 x 1-1/2......................... 1.40    .98

              (Add Postage on these 4c each.)
0602x  Brilliant, Persian Morocco, limp, round cor.,
         red under gold, 3-5/8 x 2 x 5/8 (Vest Pocket
         Bible).............................................. 2.25   1.55
02002x Same as 0602x, div. cir., leather lined, silk
         sewed, references................................... 2.50   1.70

India Paper Bibles.
              (Add Postage on these 15c each.)
0865-1/2xLong Primer, Levant, div. cir., calf lined to
         edge, silk sewed, round corners, red under
         gold, full teachers' helps, 7-3/4 x 5-1/4...........$8.00  $5.20
03554x Brevier, Alaska Seal, div. circ., leather lined
         to edge, silk sewed, red under gold edges,
         full teachers' helps, 8-1/8 x 5-1/2................. 5.50   3.60
9635x  Brevier, French Morocco, div. cir., red under
         gold, 7-1/8 x 5, 1 in. thick, references............ 2.75   1.93
9636x  Same as 9635, leather lined, references............... 3.75   2.50
03265x Minion, Levant Morocco, div. circ., calf
         lined, silk sewed, 6-7/8 x 4-5/8 x 11-16, refs...... 4.50   2.90
03274x Minion, Alaska Seal, div. cir., leather lined
         to edge, silk sewed, red under gold, with
         maps and concordance, 7-1/4 x 5..................... 4.50   3.00
8635x  Minion, French Morocco, div. cir., red under
         gold, 7 x 4-3/4, only 5/8 in. thick, references..... 1.75   1.13
8636x  Same as 8635x, leather lined, references.............. 2.70   1.89

THE FOLLOWING THREE ARE NEW AND SPECIALLY DESIRABLE BECAUSE
TYPE IS VERY LARGE AND CLEAR FOR SIZE OF BOOK.

3596xA Bold Face Brevier, Alaska Seal, calf lined to
         edge, etc., (specimen type on next page),
         full teachers' helps, 7-1/4 x 5..................... 4.70   2.50
2596xB Same type and binding as 3596x, with Maps
         Biblical Gazetteer and Concordance.................. 4.70   2.40
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         and Biblical Gazetteer.............................. 4.70   2.30

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Thumb Index on any Bible, 25c Extra.



page 360

CONCORDANCES AND OTHER BIBLE STUDY HELPS.

First in this list we mention the several volumes of

MILLENNIAL DAWN SERIES
--referring inquirers to the second page of each issue of this journal for prices, etc. We commend also, as aids, the following publications by other presses, which we supply at specially low prices because of the assistance they will lend to the study of God's Word. We mention these somewhat in the order in which they seem to us to be desirable aids,--putting the concordances last, though they are not by any means least important.

THE EMPHATIC DIAGLOTT.

This very valuable work, published under the author's copyright by Fowler & Wells Co., New York City, has been sold by them at $4 in cloth and $5 in half leather binding. For several years a friend, an earnest Bible student, desirous of assisting the readers of our Society's publications, has supplied them through us at a greatly reduced price; now he has purchased the copyright and plates from the Fowler & Wells Co., and presented the same to our Society as a gift, under our assurance that the gift will be used for the furthering of the Truth to the extent of our ability, by such a reduction of price as will permit the poor of the Lord's flock to have this help in the study of the Word.

REDUCED PRICES.--These will be sold with ZION'S WATCH TOWER only. In cloth binding $1.50 (6s. 3d.)--includes postage and one year's subscription, new or renewal, to Z.W.T. On thin paper, in full morocco leather, divinity circuit, red under gold edges, silk sewed leather lined, $2.50 (10s. 6d.)-- includes postage and one year's subscription to Z.W.T.

THE TISCHENDORF NEW TESTAMENT.

This is the ordinary Common Version in cloth binding. As footnotes it gives the reading of the three oldest Greek MSS., Sinaiticus, Vaticanus and Alexandrine, wherever these differ from the Common Version. This is a very valuable little work, published in Europe, which we specially import for the benefit of our readers. Price 40c, including postage.

THE SYRIAC-PESHITO NEW TESTAMENT-- MURDOCH'S.

This, too, is a valuable work, and an aid in critical study. It is translated from the Syriac instead of from the Greek. It is claimed by some that it was the language in which our Lord and the apostles spoke and wrote, and that the Greek was translated from this. Our price, in half leather binding, postage included, $2.00.

LEESER'S TRANSLATION OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.

This is the standard translation amongst English reading Hebrews, by one of their own rabbis. It is not perfect, but is a valuable aid in critical study of the Old Testament. Our special price, in leather binding, including postage, is $1.10.

ANALYTICAL CONCORDANCE TO THE SCRIPTURES.

In English, Hebrew and Greek, by Prof. Young (Presbyterian). A valuable work for all critical students. Price, in cloth binding, $5, including postage. We are not permitted by the publishers to cut this price; but may and do give postage free and give besides a premium of any six volumes of the MILLENNIAL DAWN series in cloth binding with each Concordance, or six volumes if purchaser pays the expressage.

THE EXHAUSTIVE CONCORDANCE TO THE SCRIPTURES.

In English, Hebrew and Greek, by Prof. Strong (Methodist). This is also an able work and useful in critical study. It has some advantages over Young's; after getting used to it we prefer it. Price, in cloth binding, $6; half leather, $8; full leather, $10. We will pay mail or express charges on these, and in addition give as a premium all six volumes of the DAWN series in cloth binding, with each Concordance, or nine volumes if purchaser pays expressage.

CRUDEN'S CONCORDANCE TO THE SCRIPTURES.

A valuable work, but scarcely necessary to those who have either one of the above mentioned. English only. Cloth binding, $1, postage included.

SMITH'S BIBLE DICTIONARY.

This is one of the most desirable editions of Prof. Smith's work. It is a large volume of 1020 pages. In cloth binding, $1.30, including postage.

"BIBLE TALKS IN SIMPLE LANGUAGE."

This is the best book of its kind we have ever seen. It presents the Bible stories in simple, but not childish language, and seems remarkably free from the bad theology so common in this class of books. All Christian parents should have a Sunday Bible lesson with their children, and this book furnishes interesting topics, to which may be added as much concordant "present truth" as the age of the children will justify. Parents are responsible for their children's training in theology as well as morals. This will assist you in the discharge of this duty, and thus be a blessing to yourself as well as to your children.

624 pages, 250 illustrations; cloth sides, leather back and corners, gilt edges. A subscription book at $3. Our special price 75 cents, plus 25 cents postage.

HEAVENLY MANNA

FOR THE HOUSEHOLD OF FAITH

This is a new publication of our own which we believe will be in great demand as soon as known. It is a text-book for each day in the year--and good year by year continuously. Sister G. W. Seibert has selected the texts, which is assurance enough that they are appropriate.

But this is more than a text-book; it has an appropriate comment under each text selected by the same dear Sister from the columns of back issues of the WATCH TOWER. You will surely agree with us that our dear Sister has exercised excellent judgment in making these selections,--and more, that she was, in harmony with prayers offered, specially guided of the Lord in the selections.

The pages will be of same width as those of DAWN, but a little shorter. The paper, etc., are good and the cloth binding is neat and attractive; 190 pages, price 35c postpaid;--to WATCH TOWER subscribers at the wholesale rate, 20c each, postpaid or in quantities, charges collect, 15c. Free to any WATCH TOWER subscriber too poor to pay for it, on request. We hope to begin filling orders January 1.

We hope that this little book will find a place at every breakfast table; and that spiritual refreshment may thus be enjoyed with the natural food, stimulating thankfulness to the Giver of all Good and thus inducing the peace of God and favoring both spiritual and natural health and well-being.


SPECIMEN LINES OF VARIOUS SIZES OF TYPE REFERRED TO ON REVERSE PAGE:
This line is Brilliant type.  This line is Diamond type.

This line is Pearl type.  This line is Ruby type.

This line is Nonpareil type.  This line is Emerald Minion.

This line is Emerald type.

This line is Minion type.

This line is Brevier type.

This line is Bourgeois type.

This line is Long Primer type.

        This line is Small Pica type.


Specimen of Boldface Brevier Edition (No. 3596x).

Christ purges the temple. ST. JOHN 3. Necessity


[R3470 : page 360]

THE SOLON ASSOCIATION.

What the WATCH TOWER BIBLE & TRACT SOCIETY does for its patrons in the matter of securing them wholesale rates on Bibles, etc., the SOLON ASSOCIATION does for its members in all lines of goods; and on many lines there is a still greater discrepancy between the wholesale and the retail prices than on Bibles. The managers of the Solon are well-known to us as in every way honorable and reliable and we give this announcement without solicitation for the benefit of WATCH TOWER readers,--that they all (as well as the Bible House force) may benefit by the wholesale purchasing arrangement, effecting large savings in our purchases yearly. See notice on page 2.




page 361

YOUR "GOOD HOPES" 1905.


[The plan here proposed we designate "GOOD HOPES," because nothing is actually promised--only your generous hopes expressed, based upon your future prospects as they now appear to you. The plan proved not only so beneficial to the cause of truth, but also so blessed to the hopers, for some years past, that we again commend it to all as Scriptural and good. Those who desire to make use of this plan can fill out both of these memoranda. One should be kept for the refreshment of your memory; the other mail to us.]

To the
"WATCH TOWER BIBLE & TRACT SOCIETY."

Dear Friends:--I have read with interest of the openings for the Dawn and Tract work in foreign lands and here at home. I need not tell you that I am deeply interested in the spread of the Glad Tidings of the lengths and breadths, the heights and depths of redeeming love expressed for us in God's great Plan of the Ages.

I am anxious to use myself--every power, every talent, voice, time, money, influence, all--to give to others this knowledge, which has so greatly blessed, cheered and comforted my own heart and placed my feet firmly upon the Rock of Ages.

I have been considering carefully, and praying to be instructed, how to use my various talents more to my Redeemer's glory and for the service of his people--those blinded by human tradition who are, nevertheless, hungering for "the good Word of God," and those also who are naked, not having on the wedding garment of Christ's imputed righteousness, the unjustified, who stand at best in the filthy rags of their own righteousness. I have decided that so far as my "money talent" goes, I will follow the rule so clearly laid down for us by the great Apostle Paul (1 Cor. 16:2), and will lay aside on the first day of each week, according to my thankful appreciation of the Lord's blessings during the preceding week. Out of this fund I wish to contribute to the several parts of the Lord's work specified on the back of this letter. Of course, I cannot in advance judge or state particularly what the Lord's bounty may enable me to set apart weekly, and hence you will understand the sum indicated to be merely my conjecture or hope, based upon present prospects. I will endeavor to contribute more than I here specify; and should I not succeed in doing as well, the Lord will know my heart, and you, also, will know of my endeavors.

My only object in specifying in advance what I hope to be able to do in this cause is to enable those in charge of the work of publishing and circulating the Tracts, etc., to form estimates, lay plans, make contracts, etc., with some idea of what I will at least try to do in the exercise of this my highly appreciated privilege.

My present judgment is that during the coming year, by self-denial and cross-bearing, I shall be able to lay aside on the first day of each week for Home and Foreign Mission Work (to assist in circulating Millennial Dawn in foreign languages, and in publishing the "Old Theology Tracts" in various languages, and in supplying these gratuitously to brethren who have the heart and opportunity to circulate them widely, and in meeting the expenses of brethren sent out as "Pilgrims" to preach the divine plan of salvation, and in general to be expended as the officers of the Society may deem best), the amount of...............per week.

To comply with United States Postal Laws, all or any portion of my donation may be applied as subscription price for Watch Tower or O.T. Tracts sent to the Lord's poor or others, as the Society's officers may deem advisable.

That the work be not hindered, I will endeavor to send you what I shall have laid aside for this cause at the close of each quarter. I will secure a Bank Draft, Express Order or Postal Money Order as I may find most convenient, and will address the letter to

WATCH TOWER BIBLE & TRACT SOCIETY,
"Bible House," Allegheny, Pa.

(Name).................................................

(Post Office).....................(State)..............



page 362

WATCH TOWER SUBSCRIPTIONS
--ON GOOD HOPES ACCOUNT.--

The friends who contribute to the "Good Hopes" (described on the reverse of this sheet) at times desire to send the Watch Tower to friends who are not yet interested enough to subscribe for themselves; or to deeply interested friends who are too poor to subscribe and backward about accepting our Lord's Poor offer. They are invited to give us such addresses below--the expense to be deducted from their donations. Give full addresses, and write very plainly please, mentioning the length of the subscriptions. __________

CHRISTIAN HOME EMBELLISHMENTS.


For several years we have been supplying our readers with handsome text and motto cards for the walls of their homes. Their influence is excellent; for they continually and cheerfully catch the eye and remind the heart of our great favors present and to come, based upon the exceeding great and precious promises of our Father's Word. We commend these as helps in the "narrow way,"--helps in character-building.

We aim to have a good supply of these very choice cards constantly on hand, and for particular description of some (not all) of the styles would refer you to our illustrated list, which will be sent on request. We still recommend the dollar packages as the most satisfactory way, all things considered, of acquiring these texts. They are sent carriage paid for $1.16, by prepaid express whenever feasible.

OLD THEOLOGY TRACTS.


These are published quarterly, copies being sent to all subscribers. Other copies, for distribution among friends, from house to house, for enclosure in letters, and in general for use in such ways as seem judicious, are supplied freely, the expense entailed by the great demand for them being borne by the Tract Fund of voluntary contributions. Write for the tracts as you feel able to use them, even if not so well able to contribute toward the expense; some who are not able, and do contribute, do not have opportunities personally to use all that their contributions pay for, so that the matter is equalized, and all may have a part in this service of disseminating the truth.

A PRIVILEGE AND A SERVICE.


We are convinced that the Watch Tower lists do not contain the names of one-half of those deeply interested in its teachings. The total is small enough surely, and we are not content that the name of any should be missing. We believe that all such will be stimulated and encouraged on the "narrow way" by its semi-monthly appearance on their table, reminding them afresh of spiritual matters which the world, the flesh and the devil continually tend to crowd out of mind and heart.

Hitherto we have required that all desiring the Watch Tower on credit, or free, as "the Lord's Poor," should make personal application; but now we request every subscriber to inquire among those whom he knows to be interested in present truth, and to obtain the consent of all such to send in their subscriptions either on credit or free, as their circumstances may necessitate. Any getting it on credit may at any future time request that the debt be cancelled, and we will cheerfully comply. We desire that as nearly as possible the Watch Tower lists shall represent all those deeply interested in its message.

Our object is not the gain of "filthy lucre," but "the perfecting of the saints for the work of ministry"--present and to come. (Eph. 4:12.) We offer no premiums, desiring the co-operation of such only as appreciate the privilege of being co-workers with us in this ministry. Our list is now about 17,000; but it should be at least 25,000, and we confidently expect the above program to bring it to that figure. Let as many as appreciate it as a privilege, join at once in this service.

WATCH TOWER SUBSCRIPTION RENEWALS.


Most of our subscriptions end with the year, so we take this opportunity to remark that we will be glad to hear promptly from such as desire the visits of the Watch Tower continued. This applies to all who get it on the Lord's Poor list as well as to those who pay. When names are dropped and afterward renewed it makes us unnecessary trouble.



[R3467 : page 363]

"THOU SHALT WORSHIP THE LORD THY GOD, AND HIM ONLY SHALT THOU SERVE."
--LUKE 4:8.--DECEMBER 18.--

THIS is the Golden Text of a review lesson intended to refresh our minds respecting the Lord's dealings with Israel, as portrayed in all the lessons of the present quarter. It is placed before the end of the three months, that the last Sunday of the period, being Christmas, may have a more suitable topic.

We recommend a general re-examination of the lessons of the quarter as a good means of refreshing the mind and the heart. Others see in the Lord's special dealings with Israel his general supervision of the nations of the world and a general responsibility of all peoples, similar to that of the Jews; but we see in all these things the very reverse lesson, namely, that the children of Jacob, called Israel, subsequent to the division into the two kingdoms known as Ephraim and Judah, were God's specially covenanted people, and were dealt with in a different manner from other nations. The Word of the Lord on this subject is very explicit. Through the Prophet he declares, "You only have I known of all the families of the earth." (Amos 3:2) This nation alone had special divine supervision of its affairs and the promises and instructions, through the Prophets, the Law, etc. The Gentile nations, as the Apostle explains, were "strangers, aliens and foreigners from the commonwealth of Israel"--"without God, having no hope in the world."--Eph. 2:12.

Very true, the Lord did in a general way exercise toward all nations a law of cause and effect which we still see in operation in every quarter of the world, and he did supervise the affairs of the other nations to the extent of not permitting them to interfere with the general outlines of his plan and his times and seasons. For instance, we see that at the appropriate time for the exodus God specially raised up Pharaoh to the throne of Egypt because he was a particularly headstrong man, who would resist the exodus of that people and thus bring down upon the nation the ten plagues which they well deserved and which would be typical of certain plagues in the end of this age against the antitype of Pharaoh, namely, Satan, who shall be ultimately overwhelmed, and all people desiring to be God's people shall be delivered from his yoke of bondage.

Similarly, at the time for the removal of the typical diadem from Israel, God's providences favored the exaltation of Nebuchadnezzar as a world emperor, the head, the first of a series of universal empires whose united reigns he foreshowed would constitute the "times of the Gentiles," the beginning and ending of which times are clearly marked. Evidently divine power had to do with the beginning of these times of the Gentiles and will have even more to do with their closing, at which time Immanuel shall take the reigns of government, the result being the dashing to pieces of the nations by the iron rod of his authority.--Rev. 2:27.

It is interesting to note that although the higher critics of today take precisely the same grounds as the open infidels of a century ago, so far as an attempt to discredit the Bible is concerned, nevertheless they have been obliged to alter and amend those arguments to fit the new conditions. Modern excavations in Babylon and in Egypt have brought to light many interesting matters which all tend to corroborate the Scripture records which infidelity of a century ago held as unauthentic and totally misleading. But while forced to acknowledge that in a general way they corroborate the Scriptures, these modern infidels do attempt to prove by these old records that the scriptural chronology is wholly at fault. They attempt to stretch out history so as to prove that some of the records were written earlier than the date which the Scriptures assign to Adam. Their reasonings are specious, false, but nevertheless they are deceptive to some who do not discern that these learned gentlemen are striving hard to make these ancient records contradict the Scriptures.

There is a deceptive plausibility in their reasoning, too: they attempt to count up the many kings, assigning each his period, and the sum of these reigns would indeed extend back a long distance; but do we not see that they are manifestly and willingly ignorant of the fact that probably many of these "kings" were merely under kings and princes, just as we have today an illustration in Germany: the emperors are one line of monarchs in Germany while the kings of the various states of Germany have so many other lines of ancestry. To string these all together and treat them as one dynasty would mean confusion, blindness to the truth; it would imply a quadrupling of the length of German history. We may be sure that in due time, when all the facts shall be opened up, the Bible record will be substantiated, as it has been substantiated in every contest in the past. A little history of some of the findings referred to may not be amiss here. We quote:--

SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH IN ANCIENT LANDS.

"Many discoveries in the temples of Egypt and the ruins of Assyria, buried for twenty-five hundred years, throw great light on the Old Testament Scriptures. There has been discovered at Karnak, near Thebes in Egypt, a splendid structure erected by the very Shishak, king of Egypt, who conquered Rehoboam (I Kings 14:25-28; 2 Chron. 12:1-12), for the purpose of commemorating his victories. On the walls is sculptured the giant figure of the great conqueror, standing erect among the thirty-eight kings and rulers he has subdued. Among these captives stands a Jewish figure, distinguished by his beard, with a rope around his neck to indicate that he has been conquered. The Egyptian king is represented as striking down the Hebrews with a colossal club. The name of Judah appears on the sculptures.

"The Moabite stone, discovered in 1868, in Dibon, east of Jordan, and now in the Louvre, Paris, contains an inscription by Mesha, king of Moab, recording events in the reigns of Omri and Ahab, and reads almost like a chapter of 2 Kings. The black obelisk discovered by Mr. Layard in Nineveh, describes the campaigns of Shalmaneser, and mentions Jehu and his tribute to Assyria. Royal tablets from the stone libraries of Nineveh mention Uzziah, [R3468 : page 364] Pekah and Hoshea. On one slab from his palace Sargan tells the story of the capture of Samaria. The Taylor Cylinder, found in Nineveh in 1830, and now in the British Museum, describes Sennacherib's conquest of Judah in the time of Hezekiah. The stone records of Assyrian history, called the 'Eponym Canon,' discovered in 1862, in Nineveh, by Sir Henry Rawlinson, help us to gain a more exact knowledge of the dates of this period."

Our Golden Text, which constitutes the caption of this article, contains a valuable thought for any occasion, but one especially suited to this review. Looking at the history of God's earthly people, Israel after the flesh, we can readily see that all of their difficulties and failures to attain to the blessings that were before them, were closely associated with neglect of the truth set forth in our Golden Text. They did not sufficiently sanctify the Lord God in their hearts and let him be the only fear and only dread --fear to displease him, dread to come under his reproof. On the contrary, they were prone to forget the Lord and all the blessings and mercies they had received from him and the obligations they were under to him.

They forgot, too, that a part of the Covenant entered into between the Lord and them was that if as a people they would honor him and serve him he would bless and honor them, but if as a people they rejected or neglected him, they were to have special disciplines and corrections. Their neglect of the Lord, their seeking without the Lord to establish themselves and to have the assistance and co-operation, and to adopt the manners, customs, etc., of foreign nations, all these were a part of their failure to properly worship the Lord and serve him alone. How great was their mistake! And yet we are to remember that a remnant did not make this mistake, though they were few. This remnant already received a blessing in the present life and are to have a still greater share in the favors of God in the coming age.

Similarly nominal spiritual Israel has neglected the counsel of this Golden Text, and, instead of having the Lord first, has been disposed to forget the Lord and to affiliate with the world, to seek worldly favor and co-operation. Fear to displease the world has largely controlled Churchianity; desire to have the world's favor and approval has apparently been more important before the mind of Churchianity than the approval of the Lord and a fear of the loss of his favor.

As a result we see today worldly customs in the professed Church of Christ, and note that these worldly customs have drawn into the nominal Church, as they were intended to do, large numbers of the world, unjustified, unsanctified, "tares," and that these now quite overwhelm the few who are loyal to the Lord and the spirit of his Truth. Nevertheless there is today, and has been all throughout the Gospel age, a "little flock," a "remnant," which did indeed trust the Lord, and which did indeed sanctify the Lord God in their hearts and make him alone their fear and him alone their dread --fear to displease him, dread to lose the light of his kindness, his favor. We trust, dear friends, that the majority of those who read these words are of the latter class. If so all things are working together for good to such, because they love the Lord and have been called according to his purpose, and are seeking to make their calling and election sure by so running as to obtain the prize.



[R3468 : page 364]

"THE PRINCE OF PEACE."
--ISAIAH 9:1-7.--DECEMBER 25.--

Golden Text:--"His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace."--R.V.

EVEN though Christmas day is not the real anniversary of our Lord's birth, but more properly the annunciation day or the date of his human begetting (Luke 1:28), nevertheless, since the celebration of our Lord's birth is not a matter of divine appointment or injunction, but merely a tribute of respect to him, it is not necessary for us to quibble particularly about the date. We may as well join with the civilized world in celebrating the grand event on the day which the majority celebrate --"Christmas day." The lesson for the occasion is a most happy choice, fitting well to the series of lessons it follows.

The first verse seems much better translated in the Revised Version, thus: "But there will be no gloom in her that was in anguish. In former time he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the latter time hath he made it glorious, by way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the nations." The Prophet penned these words probably shortly after the ten-tribe kingdom known as Ephraim had gone into captivity to Assyria. Zebulun and Naphtali were the names of the principal districts of Ephraim; and Isaiah, prophetically looking from those desolated lands of his time, under the guidance of the holy Spirit, points out that in the latter time a great blessing is coming to those very lands.

It was centuries after Isaiah's prophecy that our dear Redeemer appeared among men and spent most of his time, did most of his mighty works, and performed most of his mighty miracles in these lands of Zebulun and Naphtali, called Galilee, which in the time of Isaiah had been denuded of its Jewish population and had been settled by Gentile emigrants, "Galilee of the Gentiles." Subsequently these Gentiles gathered more particularly in the vicinity of the city of Samaria, and became known as Samaritans, and, noting the hopes of the Israelites, were inclined to claim a certain share in the blessings belonging to the people into whose lands they had been introduced. The Jews, however, disowned them as being still Gentiles, and would have no dealings with the Samaritans, as the Apostle pointed out.

Our Lord himself instructed the apostles to go not in the way of the Gentiles nor into any city of the Samaritans [R3468 : page 365] to announce him, declaring that he was not sent to any but the lost sheep of the house of Israel. He again declared to one of these Samaritans, "Ye worship ye know not what: we [the Jews] know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews." (John 4:22.) Outside of the Samaritan districts all of Galilee became repopulated with Jews, though they represented generally the less noble class, so that it was rather as a mark of disrespect that our Lord and the apostles were called Galileans, Nazareth of Galilee being our Lord's home in his youth--a dis-esteemed city, as in the expression, "Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Our Lord indeed was born in Bethlehem, a more honorable city. Under divine providence he was taken to Nazareth, to the intent that a certain amount of odium might attach to him and to his cause. Thus often the Lord permits some unsavory influence to attach to the Truth, to the intent that none may receive his message except from the love of the Truth--that none should be influenced to receive it from any earthly consideration.

THE LIGHT SHINED IN THE DARK VALLEY.

The second verse of the lesson fitted well to Galilee: "The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light." As our Lord declared, "The light shined in darkness and the darkness comprehended it not." He was the light of the world and was in the world and the world knew him not. But there is a higher and deeper and broader sense in which these words are to be understood --they apply to all peoples who have been favored with the opening of the eyes of their understanding during this Gospel age.

The people of Galilee in the day of our Lord's personal ministry, and other parts of the earth since with a similar humble class of people, have more or less had amongst them representatives of the true light, and in every case the light has shined in darkness and the darkness comprehended it not, as our Lord declared to be the case. Only a few appreciate this shining now because, as the Apostle declared, "The god of this world hath blinded the minds of them that believe not"--the eyes of their understanding are so darkened by false doctrines, misunderstanding and superstition that they cannot see those glorious things which can now be seen only by the eye of faith, the eyes of their understanding being opened.

That the prophecy was not confined to the people of Galilee is evident from the last clause of the second verse, "They that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined." The land of the shadow of death is the whole world, for the shadow of death has been on the whole world ever since the first transgression in Eden, ever since the curse or sentence of death was pronounced against our race. As the Prophet David describes it, the Lord's true people are blessed even while in the present valley and under the shadow of death: he says, "Though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil for thou art with me." It is to this class who walk with the Lord, who trust him, that the true light now shines--not as the glorious Sun of Righteousness, as it will shine by and by when the Millennial Kingdom is established, but merely as the little lamp, "Thy Word is a lamp to my feet, a lantern to my footsteps."

This lamp shines not for the world but for those who are the Lord's special people, to whom the light of his revelation, the lamp of enlightenment is granted. All these thus walking in this valley, under the guidance and care of the great Captain of our Salvation, have indeed seen a great light in him, have seen a light which the world sees not. But, thank God, the world's time to see the great light is shortly coming, drawing nigh. As soon as the present work of selecting the Church, the Bride, the [R3469 : page 365] body members, is complete, these--changed, glorified-- shall constitute the great Sun of Righteousness to shine forth upon the world, the light of divine Truth, the message of divine love and mercy and instruction in righteousness. These--Christ the Head and the Church his body--shall be the great Teacher of the world, who shall instruct all, and shall bring as many as are willing into full fellowship and perfection--destroying the unwilling and unworthy in the Second Death.

JACOB'S RESCUE NEAR.

But evidently the Prophet's vision, while it glanced upon the preaching of our Lord and the apostles in Galilee, and glanced down through the Gospel age and noted how this light glinted here and there as a wonderful "lamp," nevertheless rested not until it reached the very end of this age. There in prophetic vision Isaiah seems to see the end of Jacob's trouble--Israel's deliverance from the blindness that has been upon her, her acceptance of the Lord as the Messiah at the time mentioned by another Prophet, when the Lord would pour upon them the spirit of prayer and supplication and they should look upon him whom they had pierced and mourn for him--at the time mentioned by the Apostle Paul, when the fulness of the Gentiles having come in (the full number of the Gentiles to complete the elect number of the Church), divine mercy shall go forth from the Church to bless the world and shall rest first of all upon Israel according to the flesh, "They shall obtain mercy through your mercy."-- Rom. 11:31.

The third and fourth verses of our lesson, we believe, are near fulfilment. In the Revised Version it reads, "Thou hast multiplied the nation, thou hast increased her joy: they joy before thee according to the joy in harvest, and as men rejoice when they divide the spoil. For the yoke of his burden and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, thou hast broken as in the day of Midian." The nation of Israel is much increased today, the estimate at the present time being between ten and twelve millions. Their joy is not yet accomplished because this great deliverance here mentioned has not yet been accomplished. It is to be accomplished in the day of trouble, shortly after October, 1914, we believe. The reference here to their deliverance being similar to that in the day of Midian signifies that, as in the days of Midian the Lord specially manifested divine [R3469 : page 366] power by which Gideon and a handful with him smote an immense army and delivered Israel from the oppressor, so here in the end of this age the glorified Lord and his glorified Church, the little flock, the antitype of Gideon and his band, will deliver Israel with a similar mighty manifestation of divine power.

This coming deliverance is mentioned particularly in the prophecy of Zechariah, as follows:--"Behold, the day of the Lord cometh and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee. I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled and the women ravished: And half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city. Then shall the Lord go forth and fight against those nations as when he fought in the day of battle [the ancient time when the Lord worked miracles for Israel's deliverance as at Midian]. And his feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives."--Zech. 14:1-4.

The fifth verse seems to be more intelligently rendered in the Revised Version thus: "For all the armor of the armed man in the tumult, and the garments rolled in blood, shall even be for burning, for fuel of fire." The thought seems to be that at that time will come the end of warfare, as the Scriptures have declared. The time of trouble with which the Millennium will be introduced will be the means by which the Lord will overthrow all the powers of evil, as it is written, "He shall cause wars to cease unto the ends of the earth." Under the righteous reign which will then follow men will learn war no more, but will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. At the present time the reverse of all this is in operation, nor can we hope for a change such as the Lord's Word here and elsewhere predicts by any other power than that from above. Hence our prayer as our Lord instructed and in harmony with our hopes, "Thy Kingdom come and thy will be done on earth as it is done in heaven."

THE GOVERNMENT UPON HIS SHOULDERS.

As the verses three to five indicate the coming joys and blessings and cessation of war, verse six points out how this would be accomplished. This is shown by its introduction with the word "for." This verse is the Golden Text of our lesson, its center, its pivot point. It goes back of the promised blessings to point out how they will be introduced. (1) A child will be born--a Son will be given--a gift from God. (2) Passing over his earthly ministry and faithfulness, whereby the Lord Jesus was tested and proven worthy of the favors here prophetically assured him as the overcomer, we have the declaration that the government will be upon his shoulders. This is an old-style figurative way of declaring that the authority and honor will be laid upon the Lord Jesus. The same thought is still carried out in the armies of the world, whose generals have upon their shoulders epaulets in which the dignity of their rank is noted, is indicated. So upon our Lord Jesus the heavenly Father has placed the dignity and responsibility of being the great King who in due time, as the Father's representative, as the great glorified Mediator, shall reign for a thousand years to restore order in the world, to put down all insubordination, to destroy every enemy of righteousness and truth and to exalt every one who is the friend of these divine principles.

It is worthy of note that this authority or government is conferred upon our Lord before he assumes the various offices subsequently made: remarkably few recognize the authority of this great Captain of our Salvation whom God has set forth. Only comparatively few recognize him truly and render him obedience and refuse not him who speaketh from heaven. These few have the eyes of their understanding opened and see what the others do not see, and the ears of their understanding opened that they hear and comprehend what others do not comprehend. To them the Master is the Father's representative and all in all even now--even before the time has come for him to take his great power and reign, even before he has established truth and righteousness in the world. By the eye of faith they see him, recognize him, worship, adore, obey and follow him.

KNOWLEDGE OF HIS GLORY WORLD-WIDE.

But our lesson implies much more than such an acknowledgment of our Lord Jesus by the Church. It implies a world-wide knowledge, as it is written, "Unto him every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess, to the glory of God the Father." The government or authority is not laid upon his shoulders in vain, and the fact that he has not exercised this authority in now nearly two thousand years' triumph and ascension up on high is merely in accord with the scriptural declaration that the Father has a due time set at which the Son shall take unto himself his great power and reign, and in association with himself the Church, the little flock, now being gathered out from the world during this Gospel age.

The time when the Lord shall manifest to the world his government, his authority, his rule, is represented in Daniel 12:1,2, by the words, "stand up." "At that time shall Michael [another name for our glorious Lord] stand up, and there shall be a time of trouble such as was not since there was a nation; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one found written in the book." Our Lord will not have the authority in vain. When he shall have the authority he will use it, and one of the first works, we are assured, will be the suppression of evil--not only the suppression of Satan, the prince of this world, who now worketh in the hearts of the children of disobedience, and who, we are assured, will be bound at the beginning of that Millennial reign, but additionally all the works of the devil, all institutions of evil, moral, social, financial, that are now injuring the world of mankind and co-operating in effecting the groaning and travailing of the whole creation. All these will be suppressed as soon as the proper time shall come, and he upon whose shoulders the power and authority have been placed shall take unto himself [R3469 : page 367] his great power and shall begin his reign. No longer, we may be sure, will any evil be licensed; no longer will the making of spirituous liquors be permitted, authorized and licensed, nor the sale of these nor any other harmful thing be allowed to do injury in God's holy Kingdom.-- Isa. 11:9.

It will be then, at that time, that the whole world shall begin to recognize the great King whom God will thus set in the throne of the world's dominions to rule it, to order it to subdue it, to lift it up out of sin and degradation and to bring it into harmony again with God as it was before sin entered.

"COUNSELLOR," MIGHTY ONE, FATHER.

The great Mediator, the Christ, "Prophet, Priest and King," Judge, the Seed of Abraham in whom all the families of the earth shall be blessed, shall have various names; his character and work shall be recognized from various standpoints. He will be the Wonderful in that in himself he will manifest more than others the Father's character and likeness and nature; he will be Counsellor, Teacher, Instructor, Helper, Guide, for the whole world of mankind; he will be Mighty God--the one with all power and authority to deal with mankind throughout the Millennial age.

There will be no appeal from his righteous laws, regulations and decisions because the Father hath committed all judgment unto the Son: the whole matter will be left in his hands. From another standpoint he will be the Everlasting Father; having purchased the life of Adam and his race with the sacrifice of his own human life, our Lord having been granted a new life in his resurrection, will have at his disposal the life which he bought in the [R3470 : page 367] sacrificing of his own in such measure as will be sufficient to supply every member of Adam's race. Each member of our race as he shall respond to the knowledge that shall then be filling the whole earth, may receive life more and more abundantly from the glorified Christ--everlasting life, the life that was lost in Adam's disobedience and that was redeemed by Christ's sacrifice of himself.

The one from whom all life for the world must proceed is fitly called the Father of the world, since the word father signifies life-giver; and since this Father gives life everlasting, it is eminently proper that he should be called the Father of everlasting life or the Everlasting Father. Prince of Peace is another of his titles, but this one evidently will not be appropriate to him until, toward the close of the Millennial age, he shall have accomplished the putting down of everything obnoxious to divine righteousness, the subjugation of all things to himself--until he shall have finished the use of the iron rod in smiting the nations in dashing them to pieces as a potter's vessel. Then it will be seen that the motive beyond all this activity against unrighteousness was the bringing in of everlasting righteousness, the bringing in of everlasting peace, and it will be seen that the title well fits our great King, Prince of Peace.

NO END OF RIGHTEOUS GOVERNMENT.

The seventh verse of our lesson gives another precious assurance, and that is that this Kingdom once being attained by our Lord will never be surrendered to another, never pass into other hands. Of his government and of his peace which he will establish there will be no end. Not only Israel, but all mankind have been witnesses that the best of kings as well as the worst of kings have at times surrendered their dominions, and that the best of kings might be followed by the worst. How appropriate then the suggestion that when the Kingdom of this great King of kings and Lord of lords shall have conquered the world and have subdued all things unto him and brought all things into harmony with the divine will, it shall never again be overturned by evil.

The expression, "upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom to establish it and to uphold it with judgment and righteousness from henceforth even forever; the zeal of the Lord shall perform this," signifies that this great Kingdom which our Lord Jesus at his second advent will establish--his Church as members of his body, members of his Kingdom class, his Bride associated with him --will be the outcome, the antitype of that which was typically presented to Israel in the kingdom, the government of David. As previously seen, the name David signifies "Beloved," and the David who was the first king on Israel's throne, and of whom it was said that he sat upon the throne of the Lord, was merely a type, a figure of the greater David, the Anointed, the Messiah. Jesus Christ, the first Lord of all, and the Church his body associated with him, constitute the antitypical David, the antitypical Beloved of the Lord, whose kingdom shall be an everlasting Kingdom "henceforth even forevermore."

UNENDING KINGDOM TRANSFERRED.

The Apostle points out (I Cor. 15:28) that, at the close of his thousand-year reign, our Lord (his Church associated with him) will abdicate the throne of earth. Having accomplished the work which the Father has set apart to be accomplished by the Anointed in this Millennial reign, at its close the entire authority, with the world in complete subjection to the divine law and fully restored to the divine likeness and all wilful transgressors cut off, will be surrendered to the Father's hands, and in accordance with his pre-arrangement will be redelivered to mankind, that the perfect human family, in the image and likeness of God, may rule the world in harmony with the divine regulations. But the government will never cease, because the government which Christ establishes is the divine government, and having given up this special work, the Christ will be even more particularly associated with the Father in his throne in the general government of the universe; and since the government of earth is merely a part of the government of the universe, it will still be in that particular sense under the supervision of the glorified Christ.

The zeal of the Lord shall perform this. It will not be the arm of man nor the zeal of man, however good or well meaning, which could bring to pass such wonderful changes as those which the Lord has pointed out. The Lord himself will accomplish it; he will put all things into subjection to the Son--all things, the Apostle explains, except himself, for he is excepted who thus puts all things under the Son.--I Cor. 15:27.

From this standpoint, looking back over the history of the world, we get a grand view of the divine power and wisdom and justice and love. We see how God has been continually overruling in respect to the efforts of man, to the intent that ultimately, without interfering with the free moral agency of any, every man of the whole race of Adam shall be fully and thoroughly tested and proven respecting his loyalty to the Lord, and thus respecting his worthiness of life eternal. How glorious is the divine plan! What wonder is there that with its accomplishment every voice in heaven and in earth shall be heard expressing praise and thankfulness, glory, honor, dominion and might to him that sitteth upon the throne and to the Lamb?



page 369
December 1st

ZION'S
WATCH TOWER
and
Herald of Christ's Presence

ROCK OF AGES
Other foundation can
no man lay
A RANSOM FOR ALL

"Watchman, What of the Night?"
"The Morning Cometh, and a Night also!" Isaiah 21:11

SEMI-MONTHLY.
VOL. XXV.DECEMBER 15, 1904.No. 24.


CONTENTS

Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society's
Annual Report371
Brief Reports from Some of the Branches374
The Life and Light of Men376
"He was the True Light"378
Jews Not Sons of God379
Witnessing for Jesus380
John Not the Elijah381
Water Baptism vs. Holy Spirit Baptism381
"This is the Son of God"382

I will stand upon my watch, and set my foot upon the Tower, and will watch to see what He shall say unto me, and what answer I shall make to them that oppose me. Hab. 2:1

Upon the earth distress of nations with perplexity: the sea and the waves (the restless, discontented) roaring: men's hearts failing them for fear and for looking forward to the things coming upon the earth (society): for the powers of the heavens (ecclestiasticism) shall be shaken. . . .When ye see these things come to pass, then know that the Kingdom of God is nigh at hand. Look up, lift up your heads, rejoice, for your redemption draweth nigh. -- Luke 21:25-28, 32.

page 370

THIS JOURNAL AND ITS MISSION.

THIS journal is set for the defence of the only true foundation of the Christian's hope now being so generally repudiated,--Redemption through the precious blood of "the man Christ Jesus who gave himself a ransom [a corresponding price, a substitute] for all." (1 Pet. 1:19; 1 Tim. 2:6.) Building up on this sure foundation the gold, silver and precious stones (1 Cor. 3:11-15; 2 Pet. 1:5-11) of the Word of God, its further mission is to--"Make all see what is the fellowship of the mystery which...has been hid in God,...to the intent that now might be made known by the Church the manifold wisdom of God"--"which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed."--Eph. 3:5-9,10.

It stands free from all parties, sects and creeds of men, while it seeks more and more to bring its every utterance into fullest subjection to the will of God in Christ, as expressed in the Holy Scriptures. It is thus free to declare boldly whatsoever the Lord hath spoken;--according to the divine wisdom granted unto us, to understand. Its attitude is not dogmatical, but confident; for we know whereof we affirm, treading with implicit faith upon the sure promises of God. It is held as a trust, to be used only in his service; hence our decisions relative to what may and what may not appear in its columns must be according to our judgment of his good pleasure, the teaching of his Word, for the upbuilding of his people in grace and knowledge. And we not only invite but urge our readers to prove all its utterances by the infallible Word to which reference is constantly made, to facilitate such testing.

TO US THE SCRIPTURES CLEARLY TEACH

That the Church is "the Temple of the Living God"--peculiarly "His
workmanship;" that its construction has been in progress throughout the Gospel age--ever since Christ became the world's Redeemer and the chief corner stone of this Temple, through which, when finished, God's blessings shall come "to all people," and they find access to him.--1 Cor. 3:16,17; Eph. 2:20-22; Gen. 28:14; Gal. 3:29.
That meantime the chiseling, shaping and polishing, of consecrated believers
in Christ's atonement for sin, progresses; and when the last of these "living stones," "elect and precious," shall have been made ready, the great Master Workman will bring all together in the First Resurrection; and the Temple shall be filled with his glory, and be the meeting place between God and men throughout the Millennium.--Rev. 15:5-8.
That the Basis of Hope, for the Church and the World, lies in the fact that
"Jesus Christ, by the grace of God, tasted death for every man," "a ransom for all," and will be "the true light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world," "in due time."--Heb. 2:9; John 1:9; 1 Tim. 2:5,6.
That the Hope of the Church is that she may be like her Lord, "see him
as he is," be "partaker of the divine nature," and share his glory as his joint-heir.--1 John 3:2; John 17:24; Rom. 8:17; 2 Pet. 1:4.
That the present mission of the Church is the perfecting of the saints for
the future work of service; to develop in herself every grace; to be God's witness to the world; and to prepare to be the kings and priests of the next age.--Eph. 4:12; Matt. 24:14; Rev. 1:6; 20:6.
That the hope for the World lies in the blessings of knowledge and opportunity
to be brought to by Christ's Millennial Kingdom--the restitution of all that was lost in Adam, to all the willing and obedient, at the hands of their Redeemer and his glorified Church.--Acts 3:19-21; Isa. 35.
 
CHARLES T. RUSSELL, Editor.




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[R3474 : page 370]

BROTHER RUSSELL'S DISCOURSES.


The year's contract with the Gazette having expired the Pittsburg Dispatch has taken up the publication of the Discourses for an indefinite period with the agreement to refund to us pro rata of money paid on subscriptions should they be discontinued.

The Dispatch ranks as Pittsburg's "best" paper and sells at 2c per copy or $6.00 per year. We have made a clubbing arrangement by which a year's subscription to the WATCH TOWER and to Solon Journal and any four volumes of DAWN will all be included in the $6.00, which price the Dispatch will not permit to be broken. This extraordinary combination is made possible only by the willingness of the Dispatch to cooperate in the spread of our Society's work.

Where the Dispatch agencies are established the issues desired can be readily obtained through them. The Dispatch refuses to mail papers to towns where they would interfere with agents already located.

SOLON JOURNAL


In our last issue we erred in regard to the price of the Solon Journal. It is not $2 per year, but $1. Arrangements are effected by which all WATCH TOWER subscriptions will, on the clubbing plan, include a four months subscription to the Solon Journal, or it and the WATCH TOWER together will cost you $1.50 for the entire year. See our last issue, pages 354 and 360.



[R3470 : page 371]

WATCH TOWER BIBLE & TRACT SOCIETY.
--ANNUAL REPORT.--DEC. 1, 1903, TO DEC. 1, 1904.--

YEAR by year the Lord's work through our Society seems to be increased, and with joy we recognize it and tell it to each other. It is so great a privilege to be associated with our wonderful Redeemer-Lord in the harvesting period of this Gospel age. And every now and then we see the Chief Reaper's personal care over the work--turning aside and making void some of our well intentioned efforts to serve him, and guiding and giving success in another direction. Such experiences are not disappointments in the proper sense of that word--rather they are causes for fresh rejoicing, because we desire the Lord's will, not our own; and because they give fresh evidences that we are not fighting our own battles merely but his; and because they give added assurance that he will continue to guide us and his work to the glorious victory foretold by all the holy prophets.

The year past has not been free from disappointments and heart-aches and testings of faith, perseverance and patience; but now it is gone and we may well rejoice that it finds us a year nearer to the Kingdom glories, and by faith we already sing with the poet:

"How light our trials then will seem
How short our pilgrim way!"

The reports we are rendering will surprise many of you, in that they show but 1,024 increase in the output of DAWNS, and that the subscription list of this journal, ZION'S WATCH TOWER, instead of increasing greatly as we had so confidently expected, has not much more than maintained itself at the 20,000 mark of last year; and that our expenses have exceeded our receipts quite considerably.

On the other hand, however, you will be surprised to note the tremendous circulation of free literature, tracts, etc., distributed--so greatly in excess of all our past records, and so greatly beyond any other tract work ever done by any or all peoples or societies. And when you scan the expense columns we are sure you will be amazed at the low cost of all this work. [R3471 : page 371] The Lord seems to bless the consecrated dollars as of old he blessed the loaves and fishes.

ZION'S WATCH TOWER.

We are publishing 25,000 copies of our journal regularly now, and this leaves about 5,000 copies for surplus, samples, etc. This, counting two readers for each paper, represents a considerable number, but it is not enough--we ought to have double this number. Experience teaches us that, in these busy times, those who do not receive the TOWER every two weeks to stir up their pure minds, are apt to become "overcharged" with the cares of this life, and lose their interest,--fail to make progress.

We must look to the dear friends of the Truth, everywhere, to effect the increase in the TOWER'S circulation, and thus to do something to deepen and fix the interest of those they love and desire to see well established and well developed spiritually.

What can and will you do, dear brethren and sisters, to push forward this part of the work? This, like every other part of the service, is a great privilege and will bring to you a great blessing. Inquire of the brethren and sisters and friends of the Truth, whether or not they are regularly on the TOWER lists. Tell them of its worth to you and remind them that if too poor to pay they are perfectly welcome to it free. We want that the TOWER list shall be nearly as possible a list of all "the sanctified in Christ Jesus"--the Lord's jewels. This is your part of the work! Do it faithfully and let us have a better report next year. In sending in new subscribers' names for 1905, number them when writing to us--say, This is my first, or second or fifth, as the case may be.

THE COLPORTEUR WORK.

We have had a great increase in the number of Colporteurs during this year. We now have about 300, but to our surprise the number of DAWNS sent out is not much greater than reported last year. Some of the new laborers have excellent success, too, and all seem very earnest, very loyal to the Lord, to his Word and to his brethren whom they seek to serve and to deliver from the thraldom of Babylon's errors. Let us hope for still greater things in the year before us. Some of these dear Colporteurs have merely learned [R3471 : page 372] how to do the work recently, and will doubtless have greater results to show soon.

CORRESPONDENCE DEPARTMENT.

This feature of the work shows a great increase over all previous records. We have been cheered and comforted many times by your letters telling us of your love and zeal and efforts and triumphs and failures, etc. And we in turn have endeavored to encourage and strengthen you, with, we trust, some good results, of which we shall know more fully when we reach the Kingdom and have plenty of time to talk matters over and recount present blessings and crosses.

During the year we received letters and postal cards to the number of 52,065, and sent out 50,254. No small labor is represented in these figures, viewed from the earthly side; but when compared with our debt to the Lord it is nothing--very small interest; we can never pay the principal. As we can do nothing for the Lord direct we are glad to pay the interest to his Brethren in this and other ways.

THE PILGRIM SERVICE.

More and more we perceive the Lord's leading in connection with this branch of the harvest work. The supply of funds more or less regulates its extensiveness, and the Lord's program seems to be to have the Pilgrims encourage his people without taking from each little gathering the responsibility of its own affairs. In other words, it preserves the order of meetings usual in the primitive Church, as described in I Corinthians, twelfth chapter, and does not foster the idea of regular preaching and paid ministry common today. The little companies, thrown upon their own resources, are getting more and more free from the entanglements of Babylon, which exercise one man on every occasion and force all others to idleness as listeners.

The "Berean Bible Studies," outlined on the third and fourth pages of the WATCH TOWER BIBLES, bring all to the point of careful thought on the subjects discussed, and all who do think on the divine plan grow stronger and stronger in the Faith. The Lord's plans are always the best, and blessed are those who most carefully follow them. If WATCH TOWER readers were numerous enough to form large congregations and then were to adopt Babylonian methods it would mean great spiritual loss. Each should to the extent of his ability take some part in some of the meetings of "the household of faith."

The Pilgrim visits are far better, therefore, than if protracted stays were made. They can assist and encourage without relieving the friends from personal responsibilities which are properly theirs and to their advantage. Excellent reports have come in respecting this branch of the service. We will continue it and add to it as divine Providence seems to direct and make possible.

Our records show that twenty-seven brethren took part in the Pilgrim service during the year. This record includes Brother C. T. Russell's travels, etc. Over 140,000 miles were covered, sixteen hundred and ninety-five public services and twenty-six hundred and twenty-three parlor meetings were held.

We consider this an excellent showing of a great work which the Lord is directing. As the friends generally know, these ministries are wholly free--not one penny of collections having been solicited. The Lord supplies the workers and the means for the work. We have only the one general fund--the Tract Fund--supplied by voluntary contributions and used for the various departments and services according to our judgment of their needs and usefulness, as the Lord gives us wisdom.

The total cost of this service was $6,837.86. The "miracle" of so great service for so proportionately small a sum is partly explained by the fact that some of these "Pilgrims" not only served without compensation, but actually paid their own traveling expenses--donating the same to the Tract Fund. None of them receive more than their "expenses"-- this in a very few cases including small allowances for dependent families. But all other things being equal we give a preference to the "free"--the unmarried.

THE WORK ABROAD.

This is our Foreign Missions account. The labor for the Truth amongst benighted Christian brethren in Europe and Australia and Jamaica is certainly a better work than any we could have done among the heathen; and surely the results, though not great, are superior to any we could have hoped for amongst the degraded of heathendom. As in the beginning of the Gospel age the apostles went to the Jews and most intelligent and most religiously inclined with the message of divine mercy, so the same course should still be pursued.

We have put forth a great effort in foreign fields during the past year, and have spent $16,354.00 in connection with it, we hope and trust under divine guidance and approval. What the fruitage or harvest will be the Lord alone knows. We trust that to you and the dear colaboring friends abroad, and to us, the Lord may ultimately say in connection with this and our other services, 'Well done, good and faithful servants, enter ye into the joys of your Lord. Ye have been faithful over a few dollars and talents; I will make you rulers over larger opportunities in my Kingdom." About one-third of the above sum is represented in DAWNS still on hand at the foreign branch depots.

The largest expenditure was made in Germany, amongst whose people over a million tracts and sample German TOWERS have been circulated free. No great results should be looked for immediately; but we are getting into touch with some of the Truth-hungry who "have an ear to hear."

In the French and Italian languages, too, many thousands of tract-papers were circulated free, besides work being done by Colporteurs. Some fruit is showing; yet faith in the Lord is constantly necessary or we should be discouraged. Our confidence is that "The Lord knoweth them that are his;" and that he desires us thus to sound the great trumpet of Jubilee from one end to the other of the nominal "heavens." --Matt. 24:31.

The Swedish and Danish friends have joined also in the free circulation of the Truth through the use of sample copies of the Danish and Swedish TOWERS. Some excellent heads of "wheat" are ripening there.

The British Branch received from us tracts to the value of $2,739.82, and did a splendid Volunteering work. This branch is growing and bids fair ere long [R3471 : page 372] to be self-sustaining. The Lord has many true children there and we are gradually finding them through the various channels in active use;--colporteuring DAWNS, tracts, preaching and TOWERS.

The Australian branch is our latest foreign work on a considerable scale. In money and printed matter it received during the past year $3,453.75 out of the total mentioned above. We trust that it will soon get so under way as to be nearly self-sustaining. Several of our American Colporteurs (among the best) have gone to Australia at their own expense,--to endeavor to give the work there a good start.

Jamaica was the center of a good work during the past year. The interested are nearly all blacks, and Brother Browne (colored) has apparently been doing excellent service there; not so much in awakening new interest as in crystalizing and rightly directing and deepening that already started. [R3472 : page 373]

SUMMARY OF YEAR'S OUTPUT.
Total number of DAWNS sold at cost,...............   211,985
 These were of various languages and volumes
 and all in cloth binding.  DAWN I. in
 magazine form is included in statement of
 TOWERS.
Booklets sold at cost,............................    68,438
Copies of English WATCH TOWER sent out free,......   293,542
Tracts of various kinds sent out,................. 4,589,300
These tracts and TOWERS represent in tract
 pages, the usual form for stating such
 matters,........................................129,588,258

These figures are really astounding, far beyond any tract distribution ever before accomplished. May the Lord's blessing go with these messages of his love and mercy to their readers, and abide also upon all of you, dear readers, who joined in their circulation, either by distribution or by financial assistance in their preparation.

The dear friends in every quarter entered into the "Volunteer work" with great zeal during the past year, and experienced divine blessings accordingly, we believe. As examples of the four Churches most actively engaged we note the following:

Boston Church had 84 workers engaged and served Boston and 28 adjacent towns with tracts. Total tracts, 84,431.

Washington Church had 46 workers and served 33 towns adjacent. Total tracts, 64,876.

Chicago Church did much more Volunteer work than ever before, distributing 73,000; but we have no report as to the number of laborers who engaged. All, we are sure, received rich blessings.

Allegheny Church made a wonderful record this year--over 304,960. These, however, were not all distributed in the usual manner: a thorough distribution in this and adjacent cities used about 100,000 and the remainder were sent out by mail, some sending in the addressed wrappers and some wrapping them. About fifty participated and much pleasure and profit resulted.

So far as heard from there is a fervent zeal to begin afresh next spring, as soon as new Volunteer matter is ready.

NEWSPAPER GOSPELLING.

Many will read a Gospel message from a newspaper who would not so readily hearken to the message from other quarters. Some of these are "disgusted" Christians, confused by the jargon of Babylon. Some are worldlings, whose parents were Christians, and who have never seen anything attractive in the so-called Gospel they have heard preached. During the past year the Lord has opened a door to many of these through the publication in the secular press of "Brother Russell's" discourses. Millions of sermons have thus been scattered far and near; and some at least have done good. If the Lord wills we shall be glad to see this "door" keep open, or even open still wider. The dear friends in various quarters were prompt to encourage the journals which thus published the "meat in due season," by purchasing extra copies and circulating them amongst their acquaintance.

THE FINANCIAL OUTLAY.

Naturally the outlay for so great a work has been considerable; and it will be seen that we have miscalculated to some extent and spent more than we received. Some who sent us "Good Hopes" for the year have written us of their inability to do as they desired. We of course reminded them that their "Good Hopes" were merely suggestions of what they hoped and would have liked to do; but that God accepted the good intentions and so do we: and that they must not grieve as if this meant the breaking of a pledge, for it was nothing of the kind. This has occurred before, but never for so large an amount. We must guard our expenditures during the coming year, for our Lord's commands prohibit our going into debt, except, as in the present instance, temporarily.

Receipts.
Surplus on hand, Dec. 1, 1903,....................$ 1,094.11
Receipts from "Good Hopes"........................ 26,159.89
   "     Tract Fund from other sources,........... 12,345.93
                                                  ----------
 Total............................................$39,599.93

Expenditures.
For "Pilgrim" expenses,...........................$ 6,837.86
 "  Publishing matter circulated free--tracts,
    etc........................................... 25,908.04
 "  Foreign Missions account, on which there
 may be some later returns,....................... 13,614.18
                                                  ----------
 Total,...........................................$46,360.08
                                                  ==========
Deficit,--receipts less than expenditures,........$ 6,760.15


***

Praising God for his mercies, we have started on our new fiscal year with good courage and a realization that never before have we had so many evidences that the crisis of Babylon is approaching--that the division between "wheat" and "tares" was never more marked, and that very soon the harvest work will witness a great impetus from the repellant force of "higher criticism" or scholastic infidelity. The fields are white for harvest and laborers shall receive abundant wages, not only in the life to come but also in the joys of the Lord in the present time. Be of good courage, dear brethren--our Lord's reign will soon be due, and if faithful we shall share his glory, honor and immortality. [R3472 : page 374]

BRIEF REPORTS FROM SOME OF THE BRANCHES.


BRITISH BRANCH REPORT.
Sale of Cloth and Leather DAWNS,..................    23,640
  "     Paper DAWNS,..............................     1,364
  "     TOWER DAWNS,..............................     3,844
                                                      ------
                                                      28,848
Sale of Booklets,.................................     4,213
Tracts circulated free,--pages,...................24,169,200
Letters and cards received,.......................     4,282
  "          "    sent out,.......................     5,256


DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL,--

It is again my privilege to send you a report of the work of the British Branch so far as the circulation of the various publications and the receipts and expenditures of the Tract Fund are concerned.

We are pleased in being able to say that the work of the past year has been one of continued progress. The circulation of the DAWNS has increased quite considerably. We report increase of 4,000. Last year the increase was 3,000, the year previous 2,000; so that not only is increase going on, it is growing proportionately. Besides these sales we have sent out about 5,000 of the special DAWNS in TOWER form. Then the booklets are increased in numbers, though at a rather slower rate. Most of this work was the result of the labors of the Colporteurs, and we thank the Lord for their zeal in the harvest field. This service has hitherto been confined to a few zealous ones who have held on to the privilege of serving the Lord and his people, but during this year some others commenced the work, to their own joy and to that of those to whom they have been privileged to minister. However, from one cause or another, the total number of active workers has not been greatly increased. Some of these who have been in the work for a time are now resting; we hope to see them back soon. There is still a large portion of this country untouched with the harvest message, and the inquiries which come in tell us that there are yet many waiting for the Truth. We continue to pray that "the Lord of the harvest will send more laborers into his vineyard."

The Volunteer work has gone on well, though the number of tracts delivered this year is less than last. However, as the tracts are double the size, there has been much more reading matter distributed, as well as much more weight. The tracts are bringing in evidences of the distribution. The TOWER list continues to grow, as you will have noticed: however, it does not grow as fast as your very liberal terms would lead us to expect; the friends do not appear to appreciate fully the offers which have been made--free to the Lord's poor.

The receipts of the Tract Fund are less this year, by a considerable item; but as last year's were made large by two special donations and as there is this year an increase of the average, there is even in this a cause of satisfaction.

You will be glad to know that Wales is now getting its share of the harvest blessing: several colporteurs have been working in South Wales, and they find the books sell there readily. In Ireland, too, the Truth spreads: the dear brethren in Dublin continue to scatter the message of love, with much joy to themselves. Scotland still keeps in the vanguard, though most of its towns are now well colporteured. Since writing my last report we have lost the fellowship of some dear brethren, gone to be with the Lord; but the knowledge that they are with him helps to enforce the fact that the time for the establishment of the Kingdom draws very near. We pray that we may be faithful to the end, that we also may hear him say, "Well done."

I am sure the British friends would think this report incomplete if I did not make mention of their love to you, and of their desire that you may find it convenient to come to this country again very soon, and the sooner the better; and so, dear brother, please take this from them and from me, and do your best to come.

About seven years ago there were only about three or four regular meetings held in this country--now there are over forty in England, Scotland and Ireland.

I trust that the record of the work accomplished, and the signs that much is waiting to be done, will prove the needful stimulus to us all to "do" with our might what [R3473 : page 374] our hands find to do.

Praying the Lord's blessing upon all his people, including you, and all the colaborers, I am, dear brother,

Yours affectionately, in him,
J. HEMERY.

GERMAN BRANCH REPORT.
Sale of DAWNS cloth bound,........................     3,479
    "    "    in TOWER form,......................     5,600
    "   Booklets,.................................     3,471
Tracts and TOWERS distributed free, stated in tract
 pages, and not included in general report,.......34,344,000
Letters and cards received,.......................     1,355
  "     sent out..................................     2,025


DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL:--

I have the pleasure of handing you herewith a report of the work here during the year past. It has seemed a short but eventful year, and we are grateful to the Lord for all his sustaining grace. We feel that without him we could have done nothing--nothing that would have been worth mentioning. As it is, though well aware of weakness and inabilities, we may mention with pleasure evidences of some fruit of labors. We feel confident that the Society's sacrifices on behalf of the household of faith of the German tongue are not in vain, neither will the witness to the German nation be without avail. Evidences have reached us within the last two weeks showing that weapons prepared against the Truth are rapidly increasing. At least a dozen different papers have issued articles against the DAWNS and TOWERS: some repeatedly. The latest step is taken by the national church authorities in publishing leaflets of a warning, and causing them to be scattered abroad. Of course, these "weapons" of misrepresentation, etc., will not prosper against the Truth and the "very elect," but they are prejudicing a great many so that they will not prove "our gospel" (the old gospel)-- whether the things said about it are true or false. But we are not dismayed, "whether they hear or whether they forbear," the witness being given as the Lord directed, "in every city," "in all nations."

However, encouraging features of the work are not wanting. The German TOWER is now being sent to from five to six hundred regular subscribers in Europe, many of whom are quite zealous in spreading the good news, though most of them are poor and cannot, as they would like to do, support the work financially. But these "brethren" are learning to appreciate more and more the fact that the Lord, the Head of the one body, is fulfilling his good pleasure toward them through some of the "stronger members" of the same "body." They think with gratitude of those "brethren" whom the Lord has made "rich" in faith and love and "good works,"--good works in the laying down of their lives and giving of their substance to "do good, specially to the household of faith." But these younger members in the knowledge of [R3473 : page 375] Present Truth need also your prayers--yea, we feel that your prayers are with us.

In several places Bible Study meetings are now regularly held where the number of those deeply interested in the DAWNS is gradually increasing. I might mention fifty to sixty in Barmen and Elberfeld, thirty to forty in Konigsberg, thirty to forty in Wermelskirchen, twenty to twenty-five in Weidenau, etc. Having very few Colporteurs and Volunteers to start with, the progress made with the spread of the good message was naturally slow. But within the last three weeks, since we have been sending the Volunteer TOWERS to newspaper lists, the inquiries for further reading are coming in quite encouragingly. I doubt not that, the Lord willing, another year of faithful effort to gather the elect will be well rewarded with "gathering fruit unto eternal life."

Germany is well supplied with false teachers of great influence and popularity, who are "shaking" the powers of ecclesiastical "heavens" of all denominations. This fact seems to make it timely indeed that the Lord should send his message to bear up the "feet" members who are in danger of falling into doubt, infidelity or other snare of the devil. We know of some who have already been so helped. Are these not also our "brethren," for whom we should lay down our lives?

Our assurance is in the Word of the Lord: "Your labor is not in vain in the Lord."

With much love, your brother,
O. A. KOETITZ.

AUSTRALASIAN BRANCH REPORT.

DEAR BROTHER RUSSELL:--

I have the honor to hand you herewith the report of the Tract Fund receipts and expenditures for the Australasian Branch of the WATCH TOWER BIBLE & TRACT SOCIETY for the period beginning Feb. 10, 1904 (when our first consignment of DAWNS, etc., arrived) and ending Oct. 31, 1904, being eight and one-half months.

Expenditures.                                                    L. S. D.

Freight and postage...............................  77 15  6
Pilgrim work......................................  19 16 11
Rent, gas and other expense,......................  42 11  3
                                                   --- -- --
 Total............................................ 140  3  8
Receipts from Australasia.........................  19  6 11
                                                   --- -- --
 Deficit, supplied by the Home Office............. 120 16  9

Report of Literature Circulated.
Copies of DAWN and TOWER DAWN.....................     3,132
      "   Booklets................................     1,004
                                                       -----
 Total............................................     4,136
                                                      ======
Tracts sent free..................................   214,150
These represent tract pages....................... 5,108,800
                                                   ---------
Letters and cards received........................     1,135
   "          "   sent............................     2,300
                                                       -----
 Total............................................     3,435

The work of harvest, as we have the privilege of being associated with it in Australasia, though not large, has shown considerable to encourage. For example, the TOWER list in this state of Victoria has increased eighteen-fold during the period covered by our report, and we have reason to believe that most of these are intelligently and deeply interested, some of the names representing more than one interested person. Fresh interest is continually coming to light, not only here but in all parts of the commonwealth and New Zealand.

Hundreds of TOWER-DAWNS are being read from North Queensland to Southern Tasmania, and from the west coast of Australia to the east coast of New Zealand, with highly gratifying results in respect of interest taken and activity developed by those who have read. The influence of these TOWER-DAWNS will be making itself felt for some time to come.

Another encouragement has been afforded by a brother resident in this state. He donated L.10 to the Tract Fund, requesting that it be used to pay postage on packets of tracts to be sent to addresses in Victoria. For this sum we can post 4,800 packets; part of them have been sent.

The Spirit is moving on the face of the waters, and there may be accessions to the Colporteur ranks from our Australasian brethren and sisters, besides the courageous souls coming from America.

In response to invitations, I made a Pilgrim tour of about 4,500 miles. The brethren in South Australia and Western Australia made us heartily welcome. Interesting meetings were held almost every evening, with double duty on Sundays, and we were cordially invited to come again, which we hope we may do in the course of the next twelvemonth.

The volunteer work is going on in the largest cities of this part of the world, also in some of the smaller towns. And there has been a considerable demand for other tracts, all of which is indicated in the report of literature distributed. If these were to be charged against the Tract Fund of the Australian Branch, as might appropriately be done, our deficit would be much larger than it is.

In Melbourne some hundreds of DAWNS and a good many thousands of tracts have been put into circulation. These are having an effect, as is to be expected. Some few souls are being drawn to the Truth; they hear the Lord's voice and recognize it, as the sheep do that of their Shepherd. Public warnings have been given against the DAWN literature. The Universalists decry it, because they consider it too narrow; others object that it is too broad. What are we to do? "I am in the place where I am demanded of conscience to speak the Truth, and therefore the Truth I speak, impugn it whoso list." Oh, may our "speech be with grace, seasoned with salt;" may we be able clearly and meekly to give a reason for the hope that is in us; may we be workmen that need not to be ashamed, "rightly dividing the Word of Truth!"

An incident which occurred not long ago will interest you. Of itself, it was a small matter; yet it illustrates perfectly the spirit which now possesses some who professedly serve the Lord. A minister came to secure Vol. I and booklet about hell for a friend. He himself had been reading it and agreed with much of the teaching. To the writer he said, "Doesn't the author err in associating the eternal torment doctrine so closely with the ministers? Very few believe it now." Said I, "Mr. Russell is aware that very many ministers disbelieve that doctrine and avoid teaching it; the point is that under those circumstances they allow their congregations to believe it without [R3474 : page 375] trying to teach them otherwise." Said he, "Perhaps it is as well that the people believe it." I was so astonished at hearing such a sentiment actually expressed in living words that it took me some moments to recover. Then I said, "That won't do; if the doctrine be true, it should be preached by all means; if it be false, it is too awful a misrepresentation of God to allow the people to remain under." He came down, so to speak, and saying, by way of excuse, "Perhaps the ministers wish to be sure of their ground," he departed. Is it surprising, in view of such things as this, that the Lord has spewed out the Laodicean [R3474 : page 376] (present) state of the nominal church, and that he has deprived them of the honor of declaring his Truth as it becomes due?

Public meetings are now being held regularly in Melbourne in the interest of the Truth. Excellent attention has been given to the opening series of Chart Talks, and we believe genuine interest is being aroused, notwithstanding the opposition.

Discouragements there have been, both locally and in connection with the work at large; but they are behind, and we need not trouble you with details. Let us class them with the "light afflictions." The Lord has been very good to us and we are thankful for his great mercies. Our thanks are due our Australasian friends who have put their shoulders to the wheel. A continued interest in your prayers, and those of the saints generally, is earnestly solicited.

Your servant in Him,
E. C. HENNINGES.

Special reports from Danish Swedish, French and Italian depots not received in time for this report.



[R3474 : page 376]

THE LIFE AND LIGHT OF MEN.
--JOHN 1:1-18.--JANUARY 1.--

"In him was life; and that life was the light of men."--Verse 4.

OUR lesson is an epitomized statement of the entire plan of God in most comprehensive form, reaching from long before the creation of the earth down into the future to the grand consummation of the divine plan at the close of the Millennial age. The subject is wide enough, deep enough, high enough to furnish food for thought for a score of lessons. In considering it as a whole, therefore, we can touch only briefly on its various points at this time.

"In the beginning": These same words introduce us to the Bible as the record of the world's creation in the book of Genesis, but here the reference is to a beginning long before the creation of this earth. At the beginning mentioned in Genesis, Job tells us that the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy. There were then at that time angelic beings, sons of God, previously in existence, who rejoiced at this further manifestation of divine power in the creation of this world. There must have been a beginning, so far as they were concerned, long before. It is to this original beginning that our text refers, a beginning before the angels were created. To what beginning, then, could it refer--a beginning of what? We answer that it was not the beginning of the divine being, for respecting the heavenly Father, Jehovah, the Almighty, we have the distinct statement that from everlasting to everlasting he is God--he had no beginning. Hence the beginning mentioned in our text refers neither to man, nor to angels, nor to the Father: it does refer to the "beginning of the creation of God" (Rev. 3:14), a name or title given to the only begotten of the Father, who subsequently became our Redeemer and Lord, Jesus. With this thought in mind all is clear: the Apostle's explanation has settled the matter.

This original or beginning or first creation of God in our text is called the Word of God--the Logos. History tells us that in olden times it was customary to regard the person of the king as too sacred to be seen by the common people except on special occasions, and that when certain great laws or edicts were to be announced it was customary for the king to be screened by a lattice from the gaze of the multitude assembled, while before the lattice stood a person who enjoyed the king's favor and confidence and who became his representative and was called the king's word, because he spoke in a loud, audible tone the commands and directions of the king, who communicated with him in a low voice from beyond the lattice work. This illustration gives us a clue to the use of the Word as one of the titles of the only begotten Son of God. It suggests to us what the Scriptures variously declare, namely--that all of the Father's dealings with all others of his creatures are done indirectly through the Son, his mouthpiece, his Word, his representative.

A GOD, WITH THE GOD.

In the beginning the Word was alone with the Father, the Apostle declares. But the whole matter is still more clearly seen when we take the literal reading of the Greek, because in it the Greek article appears before the word rendered God, which would make the translation into English properly read, "And the Word was with the God." Here we see most clearly and beautifully the close relationship existing in the very remote past between the heavenly Father and the heavenly Son, between the Almighty God and his only begotten Son, in whom centered all the divine purposes and through whom he was pleased to manifest every feature of the divine power and glory.

The next statement, "And the Word was God," is not to be understood as contradicting the statements previously and elsewhere made, but the distinction is considerably lost in the translation. We explain, therefore, that here the Greek article does not appear before the word translated God, and hence the thought in the statement is a God, as in contrast with the previous statement, the God. Thus understood the passage would properly read, "The Word was with the God and the Word was a God." Ah, now we have it clearly! The word god signifies mighty one, and in the Scriptures is used not only respecting the Father but also respecting the Son, also in reference to the angels, and in one instance when referring to men, influential men--the seventy elders of Israel whom Moses appointed or designated elohim, that is gods, mighty ones. The thought in our text, then, is that the Word of God, the Only Begotten of the Father, the beginning of the creation of God, was created on a nobler and higher plane of being, endued with grand qualities, so that he was in very fact a god--not the Father, not the God, not Jehovah, but "The Son of the Highest." The Apostle Paul clearly sets forth this matter, saying, "To us [Christians] there is one God the Father, and one Lord Jesus Christ."--I Cor. 8:6.

The second verse reiterates and thus emphasizes the statement that the Word, which was a God, was in the beginning (before the creation of others) with the God. If anyone were in danger of misunderstanding the statement of the first verse that the [R3475 : page 377] Word was a God, if in any danger of thinking of this as signifying that the Word was the God, the second verse would correct the error by showing that the Word as a God was with the God, and that therefore they were two and not one in person.

The third verse is a grand, comprehensive statement, which gives us a glimpse of the great honor and dignity of the Son of God, "the Only Begotten" of the Father, the "beginning of the creation of God." "All things were made by him," by the Word-- angels, worlds, mankind--all things: "Without him was not one thing made that was made." How grandly, how gloriously, the dignity and honor and position of our great Lord looms up before us as we think of how highly the Father honored him, even before he came into the world, even before he manifested his obedience to the Father's will even unto death.

"HE IS EXCEPTED WHICH DID PUT ALL THINGS UNDER HIM."
--2 COR. 15:27; EPH. 4:5,6.--

We are not from this statement to get the inference that the Son was superior to the Father, that the Father had created nothing previously because of lack of ability to create, but that the Father was pleased thus to recognize, honor and use this particular channel in his great work. The Apostle sets the whole matter straight, saying, "To us there is one God of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ by whom are all things." This explains the matter. The power all resided in the Father--everything is of him, from him, through the Son, by the Son as his honored instrument and representative, "that all men may honor the Son even as they honor the Father also." (John 5:23.) It will be noticed from this last quotation as well as in all the other statements here examined that there is no suggestion whatever that the Father is the Son and that the Son is his own Father, but quite to the contrary--that there are two persons, both Gods, both Creators, but the one the superior, the other his honored representative in glory and in power.

Verse four transports our thought from the glorious Only Begotten, the Word of Jehovah, creating angels, worlds and man, to his work as man's Redeemer --present among men. Elsewhere we get the particulars of how he who was rich became poor for our sakes; how the Only Begotten, the Word, left the glory of the Father to carry out the Father's great and wonderful and loving plan of salvation toward man. Briefly the Apostle assures us that when Jesus was amongst men "in him was life." There is a great force and meaning in this expression when we understand it. When our Lord was amongst men he was the only man who had life in him. Father Adam once had life, but he lost it through disobedience in Eden, and instead the curse, the sentence of death, rested upon him and was inherited by all of his children, so that not a man in all the world of Adam's race had life--except this Son of man of whom John was writing. Of all others the Apostle Paul wrote, "By one man's disobedience sin entered into the world, and death as a result of sin; and thus death passed upon all men, for all are sinners." (Rom. 5:12.) Our Lord's words respecting those about him were, "Let the dead bury their dead." True, not all were dead in the sense of having lost every spark of life, but all were more than nine-tenths dead and the other tenth fast ebbing away. But in him, in this Only Begotten of the Father when amongst men, there was life, absolute life, perfect life, because his life had not come from Adam through an earthly father but was directly transferred from his prehuman state or condition to the womb of Mary. Thus born he was indeed partaker of a human organization but without any impairment of his life rights; hence, as the Scriptures declare, he was holy, harmless, separate from sinners--separate and distinct from all the race of Adam, peculiarly different because of his different begetting.

"AND THE LIFE WAS THE LIGHT OF MEN."

Needless to say light is here used in a figurative sense: it signifies hope, intelligence, instruction. Our Lord's life as the "man Christ Jesus," his holiness of heart, his full obedience to the Father's will, his loyalty to every principle of righteousness, his manifestation of divine character, no less than the words of instruction that he spoke as never man spake--all these attest that indeed he was a great light amongst men--a light which ever since has been shining, not only through his recorded discourses and instructions but also through the lives of his disciples, and that in proportion as they were and are truly his.

"And the light shined in darkness; and the darkness appreciated it not." How true! not only of the Jews of his own day, but how true still in respect to the world in general. How few grasp, comprehend, appreciate the light of divine truth and grace which shone out through the words and deeds of the man Christ Jesus. True, we are informed that about four hundred million, nearly one-fourth of the world's population, are named by his name--Christians, --yet how impossible it would be to close our eyes to the great fact that the vast majority of these are in nearly as great darkness as the remaining three-fourths of the world's population, the heathen. Into how few hearts and minds has this true light shined! The Apostle's explanation is the only one that covers the case. He declares, "The god of this world hath blinded the minds of them that believe not, lest the glorious light of the goodness of God shining in the face of Jesus Christ our Lord should shine into their hearts."--2 Cor. 4:6.

How sad! Three-fourths of the world in total darkness, while nearly all of those who say, We see, are "blind also"! (John 9:40.) If by the grace of God our eyes have been opened to some degree to appreciate this great light, let us not be highminded but fear lest the light should pass from us, lest we should ever get into darkness again, lest pride of heart or the cares of this world or the deceitfulness of riches, or any other thing should again blind us to the goodness and grace of God in Christ. Even Christians, the Apostle intimates, see only in part, but may see increasingly in proportion as they come into line and accord with the divine plan respecting them. Let us keep in memory how he wrote respecting some true followers of the Lord in his day, saying, "I cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers; that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom [R3475 : page 378] and of revelation in the knowledge of him: the eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints."--Eph. 1:16-18.

In verses six to eight the Apostle begins to particularize respecting the Lord's earthly ministry, and shows us that John the Baptist was divinely commissioned to bear testimony and witness to the Lord, to this great Light, the object being the giving of a ground for faith in Jesus as the Light, the life of the world. John was not the Light, but merely the messenger of it, one to point out the true Light. And we remember, indeed, that John was particular not to take any honor in respect to these matters to himself, but declared plainly that his mission was to introduce the Messiah; and as soon as he received from the Father the witness that Jesus was indeed the expected one he made haste to proclaim the Lord, declaring himself unworthy to even be his servant to unfasten his shoes. So faithful was John's testimony that many of his own disciples at once forsook him and became followers of Jesus, as the record shows.

"HE WAS THE TRUE LIGHT."

As he was the Father's Word or Messenger he was also the Father's Light, whose mission it was to reveal, to make known, the Father's love, that thereby those who had eyes to see might be attracted, drawn, blessed. Alas, how many were blind! Eyes had they but they saw not, and understanding had they and appreciated not. Those who did see, who did appreciate, what a blessing they received!--not only those who saw the Lord personally but those who have since seen his glory, his light, through the words of his faithful messengers under the guidance of his holy Spirit. "Blessed are your eyes for they see and your ears for they hear." What a blessed thought lies half hidden in the Apostle's words--in the declaration that this true Light shall enlighten every man born into the world! What a ray of hope this lights up in the sympathetic and Christian heart! All who have the Spirit of God, who so loved the world as to give his only begotten Son to be its Redeemer, are sure to be sympathetic with the world in its lost and blinded condition. To such this promise is a reassurance of all the glorious privileges and messages sent by the Lord through the prophets telling of the age of glory, when the Messiah shall be the Sun of Righteousness to scatter the darkness and miasm of sin and death and to bring in everlasting righteousness and life to the world--to whomsoever will accept the same.

Nothing is plainer than that our dear Redeemer has not yet enlightened those born into the flesh four thousand years before he was made flesh and died for our redemption. It is equally clear that not more than one in ten of those born into the world during the past two thousand years since he redeemed us have ever heard of that great transaction or had the opportunity of thus being enlightened and blessed. This, then, is the glad message, the good tidings of great joy which shall yet be unto all people--our dear Redeemer is not only the Redeemer of the Church and the light of the Church, but the Redeemer of the world, the light of the world, that shall ultimately enlighten every man born into the world, every son and daughter of Adam. In this connection we are reminded of the words of the Apostle to Timothy, "There is one God, and one Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself a ransom for all --to be testified in due time."--I Tim. 2:5,6.

"TO BE TESTIFIED IN DUE TIME."

Ah, yes! there is a due time for every feature of the divine plan, and not until all of these various features have been developed will its glory and beauty fully appear. For two thousand years the world was [R3476 : page 378] left practically without hope of any kind; during the next two thousand years Abraham and his seed alone of all the families of the earth enjoyed divine favor and a partial knowledge of the glorious plan of salvation which would be outworked by Messiah, who according to the flesh would be of the seed of Abraham; during the last two thousand years the knowledge of Messiah has been largely hidden from the Jews and from the majority of other nations, but has gone nevertheless hither and thither, selecting a peculiar people, a Royal Priesthood, a holy nation--spiritual Israel. Each of these features has its due time: in due time God revealed the outlines of his plan to Abraham; in due time Christ died for the ungodly; in due time his second coming will usher in his Kingdom and with it the blessing of all the families of the earth, when the true Light shall lighten every man.

"He was in the world, the world was made by him and the world knew him not. He came unto his own [nation] and his own [people] received him not." Thus briefly the rejection of Christ by the blind world and blinded Israel is recorded. But this blindness, which God foreknew and had left provision for in his plan, did not hinder our dear Redeemer from accomplishing the gracious purposes intended. He came not to reign, not to be ministered unto, but to serve Israel and the world as their Redeemer--to purchase them with his own blood, and to draw them out from under the condemnation that rested upon all because of disobedience to the divine law. Grandly he finished the work that was given him to do.

But not all rejected him: a small remnant as compared with the whole nation believed on him, trusted him and obeyed him, and were blessed by him in a special manner. These were the apostles, and other faithful brethren to the number of about five hundred. (I Cor. 15:6.) To these by divine arrangement a special favor or blessing was extended--the privilege of passing from the house of servants to the house of sons. Moses was the head of the house of servants-- natural Israel; Christ is the Head of the house of sons--spiritual Israel. This the Apostle points out, saying, "Moses, verily, was faithful as a servant over all his house; but Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we if we hold fast the confidence of our rejoicing firm unto the end."--Heb. 3:5,6.

JEWS NOT SONS OF GOD.

The Jews never claimed to be sons of God, neither are they referred to in the Scriptures as such. No greater dignity than that of being servants of the Most High God could possibly have been dreamed of up to the time when our Lord himself announced the privilege of adoption to the new nature. In evidence of this we remember that the Jews sought to stone our Lord simply because he claimed to be a son of God. [R3476 : page 379] (John 5:17,18.) The place and time of adoption for these believers was in the upper room at Pentecost, when the spirit of adoption was granted unto them-- the holy Spirit, the anointing: and similarly the spirit of adoption is granted to all the followers of the Lord during all the centuries since, although not accompanied by the same miracles and manifestations granted and necessary in the beginning. It is this begetting of the spirit to a newness of life on the spiritual plane to which the Apostle refers, saying, "Which were begotten not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God." The word born, as used both in the Common and Revised Versions, is erroneous and misleading; begotten is the proper translation of genao in this case. We note also that Westcott bears out this thought, saying, "Literally begotten, as in I John 2:29; 3:9."

The Apostle is very particular to show that this begetting to the new nature is as necessary to the new creation as begettal of the flesh is necessary to human generation. Furthermore, he hedges the subject all around to prove that the begetting power is not of heredity, not of blood, not of the will of the flesh directly or indirectly, not of the will of man in any sense of the word: God alone does this begetting, God alone accepts to membership in this new creation, God alone imparts the seal of his adoption; and hence those so begotten, when born in the resurrection, will be in the highest sense of the word children of the Highest, "heirs of God, joint heirs with Jesus Christ our Lord."

Coming back to our original topic to view our Lord's advent amongst men from the standpoint of the faithful disciple, he says, "The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth." Note first the statement that he was made flesh, a totally different thought from that expressed in some of the creeds when they speak of the Lord as "incarnate." To be incarnate would signify to get into flesh as though the flesh were merely a covering or garment. This is not the statement nor the significance of the Scriptural testimony, which is very explicit, "made flesh." The Revised Version, following the original still more exactly if possible, gives it, "The Word became flesh." This is in accord also with the statement of Romans 1:3, that our Lord was made "of the seed of David according to the flesh;" and again, the statement of Galatians 4:4, that "God sent forth his Son made by a woman."

WE BEHELD HIS DIGNITY.

The apostles and all believers who had intercourse with our Lord in the days of his flesh experienced, "beheld, his glory." They beheld the grandeur, the nobility, the perfection of the "man Christ Jesus"--a perfection and glory seen in no other because all others were sinners, while he by virtue of special birth was holy, harmless, separate from sinners. The Word glory here represents the same thought as in Psalms 8:5, where, speaking of Adam and his perfection and God likeness as the perfect man in the image of God, it is declared that God "crowned him with glory and honor." Similarly our Lord Jesus was crowned with glory and honor of human perfection in the days of his flesh, and his disciples beheld this dignity of human perfection, which marked him as separate and distinct from all others; and they recognized it as differentiating him from the world of sinners, marking him as the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth--abounding in every proper and desirable quality and characteristic.

Another thought is somewhat covered by our translation in the word dwelt. In the Greek this signifies tabernacled or tented, as if it read, "The Word was made flesh and tabernacled amongst us." A tabernacle was intended to be a temporary residence or dwelling, and thus the Scriptures point out that our Lord took the human nature, "was made flesh," not that he might forever be a fleshly being, a human being, but merely temporarily. Other Scriptures fully corroborate this thought, and it seems strange indeed that Christian people should have so generally received the erroneous thought that our Lord is now a human being, a flesh-and-blood being in heaven. Quite to the contrary--flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of heaven. Our Lord was changed in his resurrection and is now, as the Apostle declares, "a quickening Spirit," and again "Now the Lord is that Spirit." Again he declares that all of the Lord's people who shall be joint-heirs with him in his Kingdom must be "changed," because "flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom."

It would be too bad indeed to think that our Lord had made the great stoop from heavenly conditions to earthly conditions, laying aside the glory which he had with the Father before the world was, being made flesh and suffering on our behalf, and that then, after thus being obedient to the Father and serving us so graciously, he should be obliged to remain forever upon the lower fleshly plane of being. It would indeed be a distressing thought. But not only do the Scriptures cited above prove the contrary of this, but in harmony with the statement of the text we are considering, namely, that he merely tabernacled with us for a little while, the Apostle distinctly explains the object of our Lord's coming into the world and shows that it was all accomplished at his death: he says he was made flesh that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man. (Heb. 2:9.) That was the object, the only object, the only necessity for our Lord's becoming a man, and when he had finished that work which the Father gave him to do he was glorified, and, as we are distinctly told, he was highly exalted and given a name above every name--"far above principalities and powers and every name that is named." Phil. 2:9; Eph. 1:21.

The Apostle John proceeds to show that John the Baptist fully proclaimed the Lord as the Messiah, and doubtless he notes this fact because many of the Jews evidently had great confidence in John the Baptist though rejecting Jesus. The Apostle proceeds to say that the fulness of Christ, the grace and merit which were in him, have been conferred upon all of his followers, his true disciples, "grace for grace," or, more literally, favor upon favor. This last expression seems to be a statement of what all the Lord's people recognize in their own experiences, namely--that the blessing coming to them first in their relationship to the Lord is by no means all of his favor; that they may grow in grace, grow in knowledge, grow in the fruits of the Spirit, and possess favor upon favor additionally, [R3477 : page 379] continuously to the end of the course; and then--in the resurrection morning--that which is perfect shall come as the climax of God's favor, and we shall be like our Redeemer and see him as he is and share his glory.

Proceeding, the Apostle contrasts Moses, the typical mediator, the head of the typical house of Israel, with Christ, his antitype, the Head of Spiritual Israel. The Law Covenant communicated and mediated by Moses was a great blessing to that nation in many respects; but the grace and truth, God's favor and the knowledge of his wonderful plan, came not through Moses but came through Christ, and not to the followers of Moses but to the followers of Christ.

Our lesson concludes by pointing out that our Lord Jesus was the only begotten Son of his Father's bosom, and that his mission in the world was to declare the Father, to make him known, to reveal the Father first to the Church, and ultimately, in due time, to the world. The Father, standing as the embodiment of perfection and righteousness, could not properly and justly recognize sin and sinners, for they are wholly contrary to the best interests of the universe and contrary to the divine purposes: they can not be recognized by God. Hence, if he would exercise mercy it must be through another--a mediator. His love and mercy, therefore, are revealed to us in Christ, and are none the less his because exercised toward us in this circuitous manner, and with the reservation that no man cometh unto the Father but by him, and that there is no other name given under heaven and amongst men whereby we must be saved. Thus the entire work of the Son in man's redemption, in the instruction of his followers, and ultimately in the judgment and blessing of all the families of the earth--all of these will be but the revelation of the Father, the showing of his real character both for love and justice, wisdom and power.



[R3477 : page 380]

WITNESSING FOR JESUS.
--JOHN 1:18-34.--JANUARY 8.--

Golden Text:--"Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world."

JOHN THE BAPTIST had the great honor and distinction of being the first of God's witnesses amongst men respecting God's only begotten Son. John was a grand character, from whatever standpoint we view him, and all of the Lord's people now seeking to witness faithfully may draw some valuable lessons from his course, in addition to which we shall show that he was a type of all the faithful witnesses of the Lord throughout this Gospel age. He was not an example to us in respect to his manner of speech or dress or general methods; nevertheless his peculiarities in these respects especially adapted him to the witnessing which the Lord designed him to do. Living in a time of increase of wealth and luxury, John was all the more attractive as the prophet of the Lord by reason of his peculiar disregard of the conventionalities of the time, and the evidences these gave of his complete separation from the world, his complete devotion to his special ministry. The people of Israel, as our Lord pointed out, carefully cherished the memories of their great prophets and garnished their sepulchers, although they were not sufficiently careful to heed their teachings. Amongst the ancient prophets Elijah was one of the most revered, and the fact that John the Baptist simulated him in his apparel and general demeanor and forceful teaching attracted the people much more than otherwise would have been the case.

Little is told us respecting John except that he was a cousin of Jesus and six months older, beginning his ministry at thirty years of age. Therefore he had been teaching and baptizing just six months before the Lord came to him for baptism. His ministry continued for a year after Jesus' baptism; then he was shut up in prison for about a year before he was beheaded. Our lesson opens with a reference to John's witnessing --calling upon the people to repent because God's Kingdom was about ready to be established, urging them that they would not be fit for a share in it unless their hearts were fully turned to the Lord and away from sin.

Other Scriptures show us that for some time the nation of Israel had been looking for Messiah and that false Messiahs had arisen from time to time, and one record is that "all men were in expectation of him." Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the Jews urged the leaders of their nation, priests and Levites, to go to John and interview him and advise them respecting his message. Our lesson recounts the visit and the testimony John gave. Apparently it was the expectation of the questioners that John would claim to be the Messiah himself, and it was probably with surprise that they learned from his own lips that he made no such boast--"he confessed and denied not." Their next question was, "Art thou Elias?" (the Greek form of the word Elijah), and he replied, "I am not." Remembering the prophecy of Deuteronomy, "A prophet shall the Lord raise up unto you like unto me [Moses]," they next inquired whether or not John were that prophet, and he answered, No.

Surprised they then asked, "Who art thou, then? We must make some report respecting you." Humbly and faithfully John declared that he was merely a nameless voice calling attention to the great Messiah, heralding his coming: he was like a voice in the wilderness declaring that a way must be prepared for the coming of the Kingdom, for which Israel had been hoping and longing and praying for centuries.

JOHN NOT THE ELIJAH.

It will be noticed that John distinctly declared that he was not the Elijah, and some have felt perplexed over the matter because our Lord, on referring to John and in answer to the query of the disciples about Malachi's testimony that Elijah must first come, declared of John, "This is the Elijah if ye will receive it." The explanation already given we repeat: As Jesus in the flesh was the forerunner of the Messiah in glory and power, who will take his great power and reign in the opening of the Millennial age, and as the Apostle shows the Christ will be of many members, Jesus the Head and the Church his body, in the Kingdom glory, so, similarly, John the Baptist was a forerunner [R3477 : page 381] to a greater one than himself, a more important witness composed of many members, witnessing over a period of nearly nineteen centuries, preparing the way for Messiah's Kingdom and announcing it. John in the flesh introduced Jesus in the flesh; but the greater than John, the Elijah of many members, will introduce the greater, the glorious Christ of many members.

The real Elijah, who for nineteen centuries has been fulfilling the predictions of Malachi, the prophet, has been composed of the many faithful witnesses for Christ throughout this Gospel age. Jesus himself in the flesh was the first of those who witnessed a good confession before Pilate and before the Jewish nation; the apostles witnessed similarly, and all down through the Gospel age the Lord's people in the flesh have witnessed--have witnessed against sin and in favor of righteousness, have witnessed the necessity for turning from sin to righteousness in order to be prepared for a share in the Kingdom, have witnessed that the Kingdom of the Lord is to be established in the hands of the glorified, and that it will bring in everlasting righteousness and fulfil the Lord's prayer, "Thy Kingdom come, thy will be done on earth as it is done in heaven."

Hence we see that the words of Jesus and the words of John the Baptist are in full accord; John was not the Elijah mentioned by the Prophet, and yet he did a work of Elijah to those amongst the Jews who received his message. As it is the work of the greater Elijah to draw attention to the great Christ and the great work to be accomplished by him, so it was the mission of John in the Jewish nation to call attention to Jesus in the flesh, and in this sense of the word he was the Elijah to those who received it because to them he did the work of Elijah. From this standpoint we see a grand antitypical Elijah, the Church in the flesh, doing a great work of witnessing throughout this Gospel age, and preparing for the establishment of the Kingdom in the end of the age; and we see the great work of Messiah, Head and body, Bridegroom and Bride, which will immediately follow this testimony.

The Prophet Malachi declared that one of two things would follow the work of the true Elijah, either it would turn the hearts of the fathers to the children and of the children to the fathers--that is, bring into full accord and loving harmony the people --or else it would result in the bringing of a great curse upon the people and great tribulation. The world must be made ready for Messiah's Kingdom either by repentance and true conversion to the Lord or by judgments of the Lord. Malachi does not state which way the results will be accomplished, but other Scriptures clearly indicate that the work of the antitypical Elijah would not succeed, would not convert the world, and that as a result the establishment of Messiah's Kingdom would come in connection with a time of trouble such as was not since there was a nation --the curse mentioned by Malachi, the great tribulation mentioned by our Lord.

From this standpoint, recognizing John the Baptist as a part of the typical Elijah and the Church in the flesh as the antitypical, we must draw lessons of humility as well as of zeal and faithfulness from John's course: not only did he make the preaching of the Gospel the chief object of life, to the extent of carelessness respecting all interests of this life, but additionally he boasted nothing of himself. His main mission in life was to prepare the people for the Messiah and to point them to him; and our success as members of the antitypical Elijah will be in proportion as self is ignored and Christ is made the theme of our discourses, the center of our teachings. [R3478 : page 381]

"WHY BAPTIZEST THOU, THEN?"

It is the worldly idea and the nominal Church idea that all associated with religious teaching should make some great boast or claim respecting themselves --that they are wonderful prophets, or reverend, or doctors of divinity, or something else above the ordinary: no wonder then that the Priests and Levites, accustomed to this sort of thing, were surprised to find John making no such boasts and basing his preaching upon no such claims. They inquired what right, then, he had to be baptizing at all, if he were merely a servant, not a lord over God's heritage. The same thought prevails today; and unless some boastful title or position or authority is claimed, the right to preach, the right to witness for the Lord in public, is called in question by many. Let us who have followed carefully the scriptural proprieties in such matters boast nothing, but rather as John and, later, Jesus did, let our boasts be that we are merely servants, not lords; merely witnesses, not great or honorable or reverend, not priests. By and by, when the Master's views of matters shall be expressed, he will show that those who sought to exalt themselves failed of his approval, while those who humbled themselves, seeking only the privilege of service, have his approval. Directing their minds away from himself to Jesus, John declared, "There standeth one in your midst whom you do not recognize: him I declare, him I introduce as so great, so honorable, that I am not worthy even to be his servant, to loose the strings of his shoes." Similarly humble feelings should pervade the hearts and testimonies of all who are true members of the antitypical Elijah, witnessing to the Lord of glory, who is about to establish his Kingdom. Alas, that self love and self-pride should at times hinder the testimony. Alas, that some seem to draw attention to themselves rather than to the King. Let us, dear brethren and sisters, in proportion as we have opportunity for witnessing, be careful, be faithful. Our faithfulness in witnessing to the Lord shall be the test of our worthiness to be members of his glorified Body.

WATER BAPTISM VS. HOLY SPIRIT BAPTISM.

In bearing witness John called attention to the fact that what he did in the way of water baptism was insignificant, unimportant in comparison to the work of Messiah and his baptism of the holy Spirit. Jesus baptized none with the holy Spirit during his ministry. The baptism taking place at Pentecost, after he had died for our sins and ascended up on high, had appropriated a portion of the merit of his sacrifice to the credit of believers--then the latter received the baptism of the holy Spirit. There is a similarity between the work of John and that of the Church in the flesh in respect to this feature also. We can witness to the Lord and perform the symbol of baptism into [R3478 : page 382] his death, but further than this we cannot go. Our glorified Head must give the great blessing by bringing the consecrated under the blessing and favor of the holy Spirit; and later on, when all the present witnessing has been finished and when the Atonement Day sacrificing shall all have been accomplished, the glorified Christ shall pour out his Spirit upon all flesh, as during this Gospel age he pours it out upon his special servants and handmaidens.

"BEHOLD THE LAMB OF GOD!"

This was the first formal proclamation of Jesus by John to his disciples and to the public. It occurred at least forty-two days after our Lord's baptism, for immediately following that he was forty days in the wilderness being tested. After the wilderness temptation, probably very soon, he returned to John's company at Jordan. Shortly after this proclamation by John, our Lord departed from his vicinity, so that a simultaneous work by John and by Jesus was for a time in progress in different localities, for we read that Jesus and his disciples baptized more than did John and his disciples--though Jesus himself baptized not.

Our Lord was variously represented in the sacrifices of the Jews at their festivals: for instance he was typified by the peaceful lamb at their spring festival, and he was the antitype of the bullock of their Atonement Day sacrifices. It was with full propriety, therefore, that John announced Jesus as the "Lamb of God"--meek, gentle, patient, unassuming, the passover sacrifice for Israel and for the whole world. In the ears of the unregenerate such a title as lamb would not sound very dignified: amongst the coats of arms of chivalry, wolves' heads, bullocks' heads, lions' heads, serpents' heads, etc., are freely used to represent the strength and the prowess of the families, but where will we find anyone taking a lamb as a symbol of dignity? To the Lord's consecrated people, however, the lamblike quality of our dear Redeemer and his patient and willing sacrifice on our behalf are beautifully represented in this symbol of a lamb--the Lamb of God, God's Lamb, provided by him as the sacrifice for our sins, as the price of our redemption from the curse or sentence of death. This must be our witness, too, "Behold the Lamb of God." The world must be pointed to the great sacrifice for sins, and not to Christ as the great Teacher. After they have received him as the Lamb, acknowledging their sins and need of his precious blood, then they will be ready to hear his words, to be taught of him; but no instruction can be rightly received until first our Lord is accepted as the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world.

It is worthy of note that although our Lord's sacrifice had begun at this time, John did not say the Lamb of God which took away the sin of the world. The entire sacrifice of Christ was necessary as the offset price to justice for the sin of Adam and his race. That price must be laid down before any of the sins of the world could be cancelled. And we remember, too, that it was necessary that our Lord should be raised from the dead and should ascend up on high, there to appear in the presence of God on our behalf. After his resurrection as the great High Priest he appropriated of the merit of his sacrifice "on our behalf," but not yet on behalf of the world. Only believers are included in the appropriation of the precious blood already made.

Our Lord is the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world and not merely the sin of the Church, but his work is not yet finished. It begins with the appropriation which clears believers; it will reach its full accomplishment after the glorification of the Church, when the sins of the whole world will be cancelled. The merit or value of the entire transaction was in the sacrifice of our dear Redeemer, but in the divine plan the arrangement was made as it is, so that we who are now justified in advance of the world might have fellowship with our Lord and share in his sufferings, share in his sacrifice and share also in his glory by and by, and in the dispensing of the blessings incidental to the taking away of the sins of the world. None should overlook the fact that it is the divine intention not to stop in taking away the sins of the Church and the household of faith, typified by the Priests and Levites, but that ultimately our Lord's sacrifice shall be appropriated to bringing blessings unto all the families of the earth.

"THIS IS THE SON OF GOD."

Proceeding, John explained that Jesus was the one to whom he had previously referred in his preaching --the one who would come later and take the more honorable place because of his being so much the greater. John's statement that he knew him not should not be understood to signify that he did not know that Jesus was his own cousin nor that he was unacquainted with him previously, but that he knew him not as the Messiah previously. John then explains that when he was himself commissioned to preach and to baptize the Lord informed him that he would see a better witness to the Son of God, the Messiah, and that he would know him by a certain sign by seeing the holy Spirit descend upon him like a dove, remaining upon him. John says that he did see this sign in Jesus' case just following his baptism, and that he was, therefore, fully qualified to give this witness that he was the Son of God.

So it must be with us, dear fellow-witnesses: We must see for ourselves that Jesus is the Son of God, the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world, before we can be God's witnesses respecting him. Alas, that it must be said that many of those who today in prominent pulpits are claiming to be God's witnesses are thoroughly unqualified to give the witness, since, according to their own confession, they know not Jesus as the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world. The higher criticism and evolution doctrines have so undermined the faith of the majority of those who claim to be ministers and ambassadors and witnesses for God and for Christ that they cannot give the forceful witness such as alone will carry weight on this subject. We who have seen, we who have tasted, we who have to some extent appreciated the merit that is in the Lamb of God, may well rejoice in our privilege of being his witnesses; and it is to these faithful witnesses in the flesh, begotten of the holy Spirit, that the blessed privilege shall shortly be granted of being sharers with the Lord in his Kingdom and glory and work.



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